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Active Reviewing Tips 2.5   Sequencing in Active Reviewing

Active Reviewing Tips for Dynamic Experiential Learning
http://reviewing.co.uk
Active Reviewing Tips 2.5  Sequencing in Active Reviewing
 
~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ISSN 1465-8046
 
You are receiving this free monthly newsletter either because
you subscribed to it [thank you] or because someone has
forwarded it to you [check the message header above].
 
WELCOME TO NEW READERS especially the friendly and dynamic people I've just met at the European AEE Conference at Brathay. Face to
face exchange of ideas and activities beats electronic mailings
any day! In combination they work even better!
 
>You can learn more about the Association for Experiential
>Education in Europe by visiting Michael Rehm's 'International'
>pages (written in English) at: http://www.erlebnispaedagogik.de
 

~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~
~ ~ A C T I V E . R E V I E W I N G . T I P S **
~ ~ FOR DYNAMIC EXPERIENTIAL LEARNING
~ ~ the free monthly newsletter associated with the
~ ~ 'GUIDE TO ACTIVE REVIEWING' http://reviewing.co.uk
~ ~ Editor: Roger Greenaway roger@reviewing.co.uk
~ ~ Vol. 2.5 May 1999
~ ~ SEQUENCING in ACTIVE REVIEWING
~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~
 
** REVIEWING = PROCESSING = REFLECTION = DEBRIEFING
Usage and meaning of these overlapping terms varies across
different cultures and countries. I call it 'reviewing'. The term
'ACTIVE REVIEWING' includes a whole range of methods for learning
from experience - including (but not limited to) discussions.
Still puzzled? All is explained at:
www.reviewing.co.uk/_review.htm
''Reviewing and Debriefing: What, Why and How''
 
~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~
 
CONTENTS (TOP)


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or request a leaflet from: woodvined@cix.co.uk
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CONTENTS (TOP)

~ ~>> Main Feature: SEQUENCING in ACTIVE REVIEWING
 
In recent issues I have challenged the over-use of FLIP-CHARTS
the over-use of QUESTIONS and the over-use of TALKING.
 
Although I have been suggesting alternatives to take their place,
I feel that I should now offer some more constructive advice
about how to fill the 'vaccuum' that may be left as you wean
yourself (or others) away from these various 'over-use syndromes'
(or 'bad habits' - if you prefer).
 
This 'constructive' advice takes the form of a sequence for
'active' and/or 'talkative' reviews. This sequence has a sound
basis in both theory and practice - but is not the only one!
 
First, some introductory points about SEQUENCING.
 
1) SEQUENCING
Sequencing in reviewing is not just about the sequencing of
questions. Any collection of reviewing methods can be arranged in
a sequence to fit your favourite learning theory.
 
2) VARIETY PAYS
Don't spoil a stimulating diet of activities with a predictable
and one-dimensional approach to reviewing.
There is no single 'best' or 'correct' sequence for reviewing.
This is partly because the situation and purpose of reviewing can
vary so much. It is also because a variety of approaches (and
sequences) for reviewing is more stimulating. Just as for
activities, it is easier to provide a stimulating and balanced
programme when there is variety and choice.
 
3) ART and/or SCIENCE?
What variety and choice is there for reviewing sequences?
There could be as many good reviewing
sequences as there are ways of having good conversations.
Unfortunately, many people stick to one or two favourite methods
or models. However good these favourites are, the art of good
conversation and the art of good reviewing are unlikely to be
discovered or developed if they are based around only one or two
patterns or 'proven formulae'.
 
4) A 2 STAGE SEQUENCE
The most basic sequence (described in Creative Reviewing by Hunt
and Hitchin, 1986) is just two stages: looking back then looking
forwards. If you start a review with ''How will you do it
differently NEXT time?'' you will have bypassed the essential
stage one: ''How did it go THIS time?''
 
5) WHY 2 STAGES ARE NOT ENOUGH
A problem with this appealingly simple two stage approach is that
it tends to *distance* people from their experiences. It asks
people to stand apart from their experiences and make judgements.
Taking an objective view is clearly an important stage in
reviewing. But it is rarely (in my view) a good starting point.
Also, the quick shift from 'there and then' into the future
misses out the vital 'here and now' stage of learning. This
approach tempts people to jump to conclusions before checking the
facts and feelings as others see them. [Also see Peter Honey's
views on missing out stages in the 'corrections' section below.]
 
6) 4 STAGES OF REVIEWING
I have for some time been promoting a 4 stage model of reviewing
that is loosely based on the Kolb cycle, and is in keeping with
Dewey's ideas about helping experiences live on in future
experiences. More importantly (perhaps) the four stage sequence I
described was based on my observations of how facilitators
actually conducted reviews.
 
    1 - The Facts of the Experience
Facilitators ask people to recap what happened - whether through
story-telling, charting, mapping, re-enacting or just summarising
the event.
 
    2 - Expressing Feelings (emotions)
Facilitators encourage learners to share feelings so that they
learn more about what it is like to be in each other's
shoes/skin. This creates opportunities to discover other
realities and perspectives of the 'same' event.
 
    3 - Examining Findings
Sooner or later every review involves analysing the event from
different perspectives and through different questions.
 
    4 - Exploring Futures
This is often the most difficult stage - which is why I have now
divided this stage in two.
 
7) WHY 4 STAGES ARE NOT ENOUGH
The problem with any model is oversimplification. But if you add
too many extras, models gets too cumbersome to be of practical
value. But I do believe that in stage 4 (when looking to the
future) it is essential to cater for two very different kinds of
learning. A learner once told me after his course:
''SOME LEARNING IS NOW A PART OF ME, SOME I WILL NEED TO
REMEMBER''.
According to this view, some learning will be carried into the
future anyway (with or without a plan or resolution) and some
learning is unlikely to happen unless it is planned for in some
way. Everyone is capable of both kinds of learning. To help
people get maximum value from an experience, we can facilitate
*both* kinds of learning (for ourselves and for others).
Forecasting and predicting the future draws on gut feelings and
intuition, while planning clearly helps to deliberately shape
what happens in the future.
 
Here (at last!) are the five stages. I have paid more attention
to stages 4 and 5 because these are the new ones. If you like,
dislike or have any views or comments about these ideas please
write to me at roger@reviewing.co.uk
 

<<<<<<<<<   fA  fE  fI   fO  fU   >>>>>>>>>>
 
<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<  LOOKING BACKWARDS
 
#1    fActs <<<<< What happened?
    Tell the story.
 
#2    fEelings <<<<< What did you experience?
    How was it? What emotions did you feel? Motivation? Ups and
downs etc.
 
#3    fIndings <<<<< What was interesting about it?
    Issues? Conclusions? What have we found out so far?
 
  LOOKING FORWARDS  >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>
 
#4    fOrecasts >>>>> What impact (if any) is this event likely
to have?
    CHANGES: How are things already different? How are things
already changing? Where are you (now) heading?
    PREDICTIONS: What do you think the consequences will be? for
you? for others? for the group?
    CHOICES: What choices are you likely to make or avoid?
 
#5    fUtures >>>>> What do you want to do to influence the
future?
    What choices do you have? How do you want things to be
different? What can you do to achieve this? Are then any first
steps you can take now? What support (if any) do you need?
Anything you now want to try, explore, find out? Any fresh start
or fresh challenge you want to take on? What will you do and
when?
 
SAVE OR SPEND?
Capacity-building, raising self-esteem, developing potential etc.
are concepts that create greater wealth without necessarily
creating spending plans. Learners may choose what to do with
their growing potential - they can bank it for using later, or
they can have a spree and immediately use it for any purpose they
choose.
 
THINK OR WRITE?
''There is no single 'best' or 'correct' sequence for
reviewing.''
Any thoughts (large or small) about sequencing, or about your own
favourite sequences? Please send your message to
roger@reviewing.co.uk (for private messages) or to
roger@reviewing.co.uk (for publication). If there is any
doubt, I will always contact you to ask your permission before
publishing anything you write.
 
INSTANT READER SURVEY
AEIOU provides an easy way of rembering the sequence.
The above version is presented as: fA fE fI fO fU for:
    fActs, fEelings, fIndings, fOrecasts, fUtures
An alternative presentation of the same basic sequence could be
presented as AEIOU standing for:
    Actions, Experiences, Insights, Opportunities, Undertakings
If you prefer the first version please send a blank email to:
roger@reviewing.co.uk
If you prefer the second version please send a blank email to:
roger@reviewing.co.uk
 

==================================================
 
CONTENTS (TOP)

~ ~>> LEARNING STYLES - 2 CORRECTIONS
 
CORRECTION #1
Tim Pickles has asked me to point out that his article about
Experiential Learning on the Web (published in the last issue)
did not correctly distinguish between 2 different learning style
theories. The relevant section should have read:
 
Honey and Mumford defined four styles, based loosely around the
four stages of Kolb's cycle: Activists, Reflectors, Theorists and
Pragmatists.'' You can read the (corrected) version of the
article packed with many useful hotlinks at:
www.reviewing.co.uk/research/experiential.learning.htm
 
CORRECTION #2
This could be a mistake that you have made. If so, you are not
alone! Many people misunderstand and misuse learning style
theory. The theory is not meant to cramp your style - it is meant
to extend your style so that you become a more balanced learner.
Who better to clarify this point than Peter Honey himself who
wrote in to the UKHRD discussion list on 7 Jan 1999 with this
explanation of how he presents learning styles (depending on the
time available):
 
''I have three different ways of introducing learning depending
on time constraints (writes Peter Honey) ...
 
1.  IF I HAVE ONLY 15-20 MINUTES
 
In a tightly structured day I introduce the Learning Cycle alone,
showing how all four stages are essential contributors to
effective learning and alerting people to some of the ways it
gets 'distorted' to accommodate different preferences ie
- by postponing planning and doing and indulging in analysis to
paralysis
- by cutting out reviewing and concluding and going straight for
a quick fix - by jumping to conclusions instead of reaching them
via a review.
 
I have visuals to show the stages in the cycle and these
'distortions'.  I then explain how the structure for the day
incorporates the Learning Cycle.
 
2.  IF I HAVE 20-35 MINUTES
 
I do all of the above then I give people four cards (different
colours) containing a summary of the Learning Styles ie a card
(red) for Activist, a card (yellow) for Reflector etc.  They
simply read the lists on the cards and decide which one is most
like them.  A straw poll is conducted by getting people to hold
up their card and counting the number of people with Activist
preferences etc etc.  I finish by stressing the importance of
investing extra effort in the parts of the Learning Cycle they do
not relish.
 
3.  IF I HAVE 35-60 MINUTES
 
I do 1. above, then get people to complete the Learning Styles
Questionnaire;  read the descriptions to the four styles; predict
their preferences; score the questionnaire; apply the appropriate
norms and share/discuss the results ...
 
Finally, I believe it is essential always to make the learning
process explicit. Being pushed for time is no excuse.  After all,
the learning process is the key to whatever else you plan to
tackle during the day.''
 
For more information visit www.peterhoney.co.uk where you can
find out your own learning style, or write to
peterhoney@peterhoney.co.uk
 
To find out more about the UKHRD discussion list visit
http://www.ukhrd.com
To join, send the message "subscribe network" to
majordomo@ukhrd.com
 
==================================================
 
CONTENTS (TOP)

~ ~>> PAST AND FUTURE ISSUES OF ACTIVE REVIEWING TIPS
 
This fairly 'theoretical' (but useful?) issue will be followed by
a more practical one!
 
The focus of the last issue was 'Therapy For All' - now archived
at: www.reviewing.co.uk/archives/art/2_4.htm
The 'ideas from therapy' theme will be returned to in future
issues. Narrative Therapy and Art Therapy are coming soon. Your
contributions on this topic or any other reviewing topics are
always welcome.
 
If you would like to write in on any ''reviewing'' topic please
send your message to roger@reviewing.co.uk (for private
messages) or to roger@reviewing.co.uk (for publication). If
there is any doubt, I will always contact you to ask your
permission before publishing anything you write.
 
==================================================
 
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