Active Reviewing Tips 13.2 ~ ISSN 1465-8046
A free monthly publication from Reviewing Skills Training
ARTips 13.2 Facilitative Frames for Reflection
~ 1 ~ EDITORIAL: What is your frame?
~ 2 ~ ARTICLE: Facilitative frames for reflection
~ 3 ~ ACTIVE LEARNING MANUAL: How to save money with a camera
~ 4 ~ ACTIVE LEARNING BOOKSHOP: Save the Children
~ 5 ~ ARCHIVE: Reviewing for What?
~ 6 ~ EVENTS: Reviewing and Facilitation Skills Training
~ 7 ~ LINKS: 10 Questions to Ask Before Conducting a Review
~ 8 ~ PREVIOUS AND NEXT ISSUE: Real Reviewing
~ 9 ~ WHAT'S NEW? Reflection Before Action
~ 10. About Active Reviewing Tips
EDITORIAL: How do you do ...?
In Catcher in the Rye, Holden Caulfield imagines himself
patrolling the edges of a field of rye in which children are
playing - so that he can stop them from falling over a cliff.
This could represent one of the most minimal frames for
learning - providing a huge space and patrolling the edges where
there is a risk that participants may come to harm.
As we get more ambitious and interfering (as facilitators of
learning) we might try to find or create a space that is not only
safe but is also a place that is good for reflection.
What often happens at this point in choosing or designing
learning spaces is that that one idea dominates and we put all
our eggs in one basket - or all our ideas in one frame.
For example, the group circle is a great space for reflection -
some of the time. The same could be said for going for a walk
with a good listener and friend - a great space for reflection,
some of the time. The same could be said for the frame of a
As facilitators I think we need a variety of frames that are
inclusive and suitable for a range of different kinds of
Rather than adopting or creating one frame that fits all
(because it won't) how about having a number of frames that
you keep moving around?
Whatever your main frame happens to be, the main article in this
issue of Active Reviewing Tips invites you to play with a few
Please note that to reduce the size of this email I have included
only part of the article. For the full article you will need to
follow the link to the relevant web page.
PS Thank you Sam. Sam has allowed me to include his '10 Questions
to Ask Before Conducting a Review' - in section 7 below.
I know that a lot of readers of Active Reviewing Tips are also
writers. Please feel free to comment on what you read in this
issue (eg sharing one of your favourite frames) or to offer a
paragraph or two on topics coming up in future issues - listed in
section 8 below. Before publishing anything you write I will
always ask for your explicit permission first (just in case you
were writing to me 'off the record').
~ ARTICLE: Facilitative Frames for Reflection
I have been trying to find a useful level of description that is
one step back from the details of front line practice. I am
calling this level of description 'facilitative frames'. These
'close-to-the-action' frames can, I think, help us make good on-
the-spot decisions as facilitators of experiential learning.
The frames I have described in this article are just some of the
possible frames through which you can look at what you do, and
through which you can shape what you do to facilitate learning.
'Timeframe' seemed like an obvious place to start. I have zoomed
in on just one aspect of this frame: beginnings and endings.
For a spatial frame, I have focused on the group circle and how
the circle shapes what happens - for good or for ill.
I then look at some of our choices as facilitators when framing
opportunities for individual reflection.
Other influential frames are those of culture, content and
purpose as well as any learning or training models that frame our
own thought processes or those of participants. These and the
frames I have chosen to highlight in this article are all frames
that influence the learner and the learning climate.
As facilitators we should be aware of the various frames that are
helping or hindering learning. Whether we adjust the frames
ourselves or choose to involve participants in doing so, it could
be that intervening at the 'frame' level is one of the most
powerful kinds of intervention.
1. Time as a Facilitative Frame
- Beginnings and Endings
2. Space as a Facilitative Frame
- The Group Circle
- Beyond the Circle: other facilitative frames
3. More Frames for Facilitating Reflection
4. What! No Learning Cycle?
TIME AS A FACILITATIVE FRAME
In a reviewing session participants need to feel that time is on
their side and that it is not working against them. This does not
mean that you give participants as long as they like for
reflection, but it does mean that you need to give people
sufficient time for what you are asking them to do.
I am sure there are many useful angles to explore in relation to
time and timing of reviewing sessions. I have focused on just
one aspect: beginning and ending a session (of any length).
BEGINNINGS AND ENDINGS
It is a nice touch to finish a session in a way that reflects
where it began - both in relation to ideas as well as to the
activity involved. For example:
Returning to the starting point in these ways becomes more than
'a nice touch' - it also reveals something about the journey
within the reviewing session itself.
Such choreography should feel satisfying to participants. If you
get too enthusiastic about such designs, participants may sense
that it is more for your satisfaction than theirs - making your
'nice touch' far less satisfying all round.
A review session is a journey with a beginning, a middle and an
end. If the whole session is spent sat in the same place it may
not feel much like a journey, but the principle of matching
endings to beginnings can still apply to more static reviews.
Fortunately you are a facilitator of active reviews - and you are
looking for tips for active reviewing!
SPACE AS A FACILITATIVE FRAME
There are many useful angles to explore in relation to how you
frame and use space and how different spatial geometries help or
hinder the process of reflecting on experience. In previous
issues of Active Reviewing Tips, for example, I have looked at
various uses of room-sized scales and maps. In this issue I have
chosen to focus on the group circle as one of the basic spaces
used for the facilitation of experiential learning in groups.
THE GROUP CIRCLE
The group circle is a space and shape that supports many styles
of reflection. The circle has a lot going for it as a
'facilitative frame' especially when it is associated with
cultural traditions in which the circle encourages open sharing,
respectful listening and democratic participation.
But circles do not always function well as a facilitative
frame for reviewing. These tips are designed to help you get
the most out of circles without falling into the traps:
A circle can represent equality if everyone is at much the same
level and if there is no focal seat of power within the circle.
If the available space is limited (creating a distorted circle)
or if the furniture is not sufficiently uniform (creating
different eye levels or different levels of comfort) the circle
ceases to look or feel equal.
- A workaround is to split the group in half and work with one
half at a time. Half the group sits in a well-formed circle while
the other half are observers or learning buddies during the next
swap between inner and outer groups.
- Another workaround is to work with the whole group and to ask
that they return to a different seat whenever you ask them to
form a circle.
2. EYE CONTACT
There may be times when as a facilitator you want to dissolve
into the circle and be on the same level and have the same
status, but there are other times when you may wish to take a
more dominant position and shift your status such as when giving
a special input. Some facilitators move their seat a little way
into the circle while others stand and walk around in the middle.
Both of these moves mean that you instantly lose eye contact with
everyone - with the result that you become less observant and
risk losing connection with some participants. Even in a perfect
circle you can easily lose eye contact with your immediate
neighbours - which is one of the reasons why it is good for you
(and others) to move around from time to time to get a different
view of each other.
3. PECKING ORDER
In some cultures (national cultures, work cultures or street
cultures) there is an understanding that the most senior people
in the group will speak first even if everyone is sat in a
circle. Although circles help to even out status and encourage
wider participation than usual, the cultural values may only be
very slightly affected by rearranging the furniture. If people
feel that the circle is threatening their status in any way, then
everyone may feel uneasy, uncertain and reluctant to speak -
including the most senior person. In these cases introduce tasks
and exercises that require a range of different configurations
(other than the whole group circle). Observe the situations and
configurations in which people are participating more freely and
openly. These are the ones to use more!
In some groups, relatively shy people can feel intimidated by
the whole group circle. Shy people can feel as if they are on
stage because everyone else can see them. This feeling can be
accentuated if they have no table or desk in front of them. I see
this as a sign for some kind of 'pre-work' to help people feel
more comfortable sitting in a circle. Exercises that involve lots
of short conversations with frequently changing partners help to
develop one to one connections throughout the group and help to
increase comfort in the whole group. Also when shy participants
who wish to speak have a visual aid, such as a picture they have
chosen, they can feel more at ease because the rest of the group
will tend to divide their attention between the visual aid and
the person speaking - rather than having all eyes on the speaker.
5. SIZE MATTERS
Circles can be too big or too small. It is usually the case
that the more people there are in a circle the more intimidating
it can be. But in some situations people find small circles more
intimidating - because it can feel too intimate (or even harder
to hide) in a small circle - resulting in some individuals
feeling even more exposed. This is especially true if the shy
person finds themselves in an unfacilitated group in which the
dominant person lacks sensitivity.
6. REFLECTIVE SILENCE
A circle can represent peace and harmony and high quality
listening. In a Quaker circle people make whatever statements
they like after a pause for thought following the previous
speaker. Whoever chooses to speak does not need to make a
connection with what the previous speaker said. This is a
particularly reflective kind of circle space because it includes
the tradition of pausing for reflection rather than having a busy
conversation. But some people are uncomfortable in silences. If
using silence (Quaker style or any other style) it can be a more
friendly and reflective silence if you first explain something
about the value of silence for reflection.
7. THE SPACE IN THE MIDDLE
When the circle has no obstructions in the centre (no fire, no
table, no projector stand) there is plenty of scope for mixing
circle work with games, tasks or performances in the central
space. I will often make, or ask groups to make, maps, diagrams,
sculptures or storylines in this central space. It is effectively
an instant stage or presentation space. Something to watch out
for is where there is so much of interest at floor level that all
eyes are looking down for a sustained period of time. This is one
occasion where it can be better to work at table level so that
the objects being moved, or the pictures being talked about are
much closer to eye level - making it much easier for people to
communicate with each other about whatever is on display. If
acceptable, an easier solution is for everyone to sit on the
floor with the objects or pictures.
There are many reviewing methods that either require (or fit well
with) the group circle. I reviewed several of these in my article
on Turntaking Methods - which complements the more general
observations above about ways in which circles can be used as
facilitative frames for reviewing. See:
The circle is often the basic form to which everything returns -
it should feel to participants as if it is their home circle
rather than being the facilitator's performance space. If you
really want a performance space, change the set-up (or move to a
place designed for performance) rather than invade a space with
which the group could be developing an increasing affinity and
sense of ownership. It is worth investing time and effort in
making the circle a place that supports learning and development
for each and every individual. Once the circle becomes the home
and 'holder' of such values, facilitation becomes a whole lot
BEYOND THE CIRCLE: OTHER FRAMES
In a paradoxical way, one of the best ways of sustaining
reflective work in the circle is to break up the circle from time
to time and introduce a variety of reflective activities. These
activities might start or finish in the circle but they take
place outside the circle in many different ways.
In case you are one of the (many) facilitators who likes to do
all of their work in a circle, please allow me to give you four
more reasons for leaving the circle from time to time.
1. HABITS AND PATTERNS ARE DIFFICULT TO CHANGE
Habits and patterns quickly form in a group circle (including
your own facilitation style with a particular group). And once
these habits and patterns become routine they are difficult to
change. If you find it difficult to change how you are
facilitating, then imagine how difficult it would be for
participants to change the ways in which they are contributing
2. EVEN SUPPORTIVE ROUTINES BECOME RESTRICTIVE
Even when the group climate appears to support learning and
development, it is likely that some of the routines are stifling
for some individuals or are locking people into fixed patterns.
The more satisfying the routines become the harder they are to
change. Both group and individual development is restricted once
routines that have served them well in the past have lost their
utility and value. Leaving the circle means leaving the routines
of the circle and finding another space in which a different kind
of learning and development is possible. Breakthroughs beyond the
circle can make breakthroughs within the circle more likely to
happen when people return.
3. POSITIVE GROUP PRESSURE CAN BE TOO MUCH OF A GOOD THING
Peer group pressure can be incredibly strong. And when you are
sat in a circle with your peers that pressure will be at maximum
strength. Of course, as a facilitator, you will be working hard
to make such pressure a positive force. But even positive peer
group pressure can be overdone: the individual also needs space
to reflect and make choices - away from the intensity of the
4. THE FIRST RESPONSES TEND TO BE THE LEAST REFLECTIVE
I have reached this conclusion through reasoning that the first
person to speak in answer to your question has spent less time
reflecting on your question (compared to anyone who responds
later to the same question). And I have observed that the tone of
a discussion tends to be set by the opening responses - before
the most reflective people have spoken up. If a typical group
setting is dominated by the least reflective people, then some
smart facilitation is needed to favour reflective responses - if
your intention is to encourage reflection in the group circle.
You can try to counter these hindering forces within the group
circle, but some kinds of reflection are easier to support by
using facilitative frames OUTSIDE the group circle. Some of these
are described in the next section.
MORE FRAMES FOR FACILITATING REFLECTION
These frames are presented in a rough sequence from frames for
private reflection through to frames for shared reflection.
Time and space for own thoughts. Internal unstructured
reflection. No sharing expected. No input or structure other than
the avoidance of distractions and the participant knowing that it
is a time reserved for private reflection.
- eyes closed
- magic spot
- mood music
2. THINKING AND PREPARATION
Exactly the same as 'Thinking' except that there is an
expectation from the start that participants will be invited to
share their thoughts afterwards - perhaps in the group circle.
This is one strategy for helping to overcome problem 4 above
('the first response tends to be least reflective') because
whoever speaks first (even if it is the usual first speaker) has
had time to reflect in some depth before speaking.
Seeing a visual reminder of the event as a prompt for internal
reflection. No sharing expected, but sharing is likely to happen
naturally and spontaneously.
- watching a video of the event or performance
- viewing photos of the event or performance
For more structured reflection you can ask people to choose
significant moments to pause the video, or you can ask people to
choose a picture. (See 'Choosing and Sharing' below)
4. LISTENING TO OTHER PERSPECTIVES
Receiving new data related to the event. Receiving new
perspectives or angles. More for listening than responding.
- hearing a verbal report from an observer
- hearing responses from other participants
- listening to a guided reflection
- receiving personal feedback
This could be the conclusion of a reviewing session, or it could
be followed by sharing responses in a group circle, or there can
be an in between stage eg moving from 'Listening' to 'Thinking
and Preparation' (see above) before moving back into the group
5. FILLING IN
This might take the form of a log book in which each page has a
different kind of reflective activity to complete. This semi-
structured process is used in a range of settings from Outward
Bound, to online and distance learning, to journals used in
management development. For example, the Executive Edge Learning
Journal(TM) is said to contain everything that participants need
to facilitate their own learning processes - activity
frontloading, rules and debrief questions. See my review at:
- completing a sentence, a form, a questionnaire.
- filling in diagrams with words
- writing answers to questions
- completing a logbook or learning journal
Such recordings tend to be quite private, so it should be clear
from the outset whether such recordings are for the writer's eyes
only, or whether they are for sharing. Some more suitable options
for sharing follow below.
6. MAKING A SOUVENIR
Reflection aided by a creative process starting with a blank page
or other 'blank' media. Output for self or for sharing.
- making notes
- drawing pictures
- drawing diagrams
- making models
- making music
- sculpting ...
If the souvenir is for sharing, there are some important choices
to make at this point. One disadvantage of going straight into
the circle for sharing at this point is that it can be a
predictable and superficial routine - the more so the larger the
circle. The alternative described below is more varied, goes
deeper, generates more interesting group dynamics and takes about
the same time.
One alternative is to share souvenirs in 2s or 3s and invite
people to leave all souvenirs on display during the break. After
the break ask if anyone has questions about any souvenir that
they would like to ask in the group circle. This can result in
one or two people being invited to present their souvenir to the
whole group. This alternative allows everyone to share their
souvenir in some depth with one or two others while also allowing
a chosen few to re-present their souvenir to the whole group.
7. CHOOSING AND SHARING
For some basic choices about sharing see the comments above about
sharing the souvenir.
- choosing a word or phrase
- choosing a picture
- choosing an object
- choosing a point on a scale or diagram
- choosing a place on a metaphor map or flow chart
- choosing a question to answer
8. REFLECTING IN SMALL GROUPS
The facilitative frames presented so far in this section are
primarily for individuals to collect and explore their thoughts
on their own before sharing them with others in pairs, in small
groups, or in the larger group circle. But with a few tweaks,
most of the above processes can be initiated in 2s or 3s, so that
a higher proportion of reflection time is interpersonal.
For example, pairs or small groups can:
- answer a question together
- choose a picture together
- find an object together
- make a picture, map or model together
- making music or percussion together. For an example see:
These kinds of reflecting together are a half-way house between
reflecting in the group circle and reflecting alone. But do not
think of this 'half-way house' as a poor compromise in which
participants would really prefer to be reflecting on their own or
reflecting in the larger group. Although facilitators might like
to think that the most significant kind of reflection happens in
a facilitated group, there is plenty of evidence to show that
significant reflection also happens privately and in small
unfacilitated groups. (This is one kind of 'remote facilitation'
which is scheduled for a later issue of Active Reviewing Tips.)
9. CONVERSATION, DIALOGUE, DISCUSSION
Participating in a live, fluid, dynamic, responsive and
reflective way - mutually generated in the moment, interweaving,
reinterpreting, co-creating, negotiating, exploring, learning,
- participating in a learning conversation with one or two others
or in a whole group discussion.
- ditto, enhanced by using visual aids to enrich discussion.
- ditto, enhanced by using space and movement in special ways to
So we are now back in the whole group circle facilitating a
wonderful discussion. Some facilitators reach this point entirely
within the group circle. They are talented and I admire them. I
hope this article has helped you to appreciate the value of other
frames and how these can support circle work. I hope you will
discover how moving between these various facilitative frames
can be even more effective for supporting experience-based
WHAT! NO LEARNING CYCLE?
Most writers about experiential learning tend to present a
sequence or cycle as the primary frame through which to
understand and facilitate experiential learning. From within this
frame, the main focus of the facilitator is 'What kind of
question shall I ask next?'. But, as I argue in my writings about
the Joker, there is nothing special or magical or theoretically
superior about any particular sequence for learning. Cycles are
weak frames on which to build a successful facilitation
strategy. I think it is valuable to keep a range of different
kinds of facilitative frames in mind (including learning
cycles, group circles and other frames described above) and
to use these to construct your own strategies.
If every way of seeing is also a way of not seeing, then every
facilitative frame is facilitative in some ways and
unfacilitative in others - so use more than one!
And if you have a favourite frame that is not included above,
please write to email@example.com and (if you like) I will
include your frame in the next issue.
~ ACTIVE LEARNING MANUAL:
HOW TO SAVE MONEY WITH A CAMERAThe Active Learning Manual is a pilot project using video to
demonstrate active learning methods. You can view my introductory
video and three one minute videos
- Action Replay
- Moving Stones
- Talking Knot
I am interested in making or collecting further short videos of a
similar quality add to the Active Learning Manual collection. If
you already have (or wish to make) suitable videos please write
to me at: firstname.lastname@example.org
~ ACTIVE LEARNING BOOKSHOP
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~ ARCHIVES: Reviewing for What?
Reviewing for All
Reviewing for Development
Reviewing for Different Ages
Reviewing for Fun
Reviewing for Leaders
Reviewing for Newcomers
Reviewing for Peace and Conflict Resolution
Reviewing for Results
Reviewing for Starters
Reviewing for Teams
You can readily access the Reviewing for ... series from the
Archives Index at:
And if you would like to suggest a further title for this series
please write to: email@example.com
~ EVENTS: Reviewing and Facilitation Skills Training
If you are a provider of facilitation training, please send me
the details if you would like the details included in future
issues of Active Reviewing Tips. Workshops that I am providing
are marked (RST) for 'Reviewing Skills Training'.
5-6 March, 2011
Annual Festival of Outdoor Learning
An extensive and varied programme of workshops for anyone working
in the outdoors - including 2 workshops with Roger Greenaway
Hollowford Centre, Castleton, Derbyshire
15-16th March 2011 (RST)
the key role that reviewing plays in Outdoor Learning
with Roger Greenaway, Reviewing Skills Training
The Wembworthy Centre, Chulmleigh, Mid-Devon
More details: Phil Berry, IOL South West
17th March 2011
Enhancing Learning Power
introducing ELLI and the Learning Power Dimensions
Explore potential applications of Learning Power in your learning
design and delivery, in order to improve the effectiveness and
of individuals, teams and organisations you work with.
17-18 March, 2011
Your next opportunity to attend our two day training workshop.
Freshen up your facilitation skills, increase your confidence and
leave with a host of tools and techniques to get the most out of
meetings & events.
25th March 2011
METALOG® training tools Workshop
METALOG® training tools are multifaceted interaction activities
and learning projects for indoor and outdoor use
26 March - 1 April, 2011
The Reflective Leader
Educational Improvement and Development
Polopos, Contraviesa, Andalucia, Spain
Unique fully EU funded (Comenius and Grundtvig) CPD opportunity
for teachers, headteachers, QIO’s, lecturers at all stages/ages
24 - 26 April, 2011: EEE Preconference
27 April - 1 May, 2011: EEE Conference
Experiential Educators Europe
15th EEEurope annual conference
Debeli rtic peninsula, Slovenia
12th May, 2011 (RST)
Reviewing Outdoor Experiences
with Roger Greenaway, Reviewing Skills Training
hosted by Alan Smith, John Muir Award
13-14 June 2011 (RST)
Luohu, Shenzhen, China
How to Facilitate Learning from Experience and make your
Debriefing more Dynamic and Effective
with Roger Greenaway, Reviewing Skills Training
15-16 June 2011 (RST)
Luohu, Shenzhen, China
How to Transfer Learning and give your Training Lasting Impact
with Roger Greenaway, Reviewing Skills Training
For the latest listing of open workshops provided by Roger
Greenaway check this page:
MADE FOR YOU
If you would like to host an open event or arrange for a
customised in-house programme please get in touch by writing to:
OFF THE SHELF
View the sample training workshops at
I do not charge any extra for customised programmes because
customising is such a significant success factor.
~ LINKS: 10 Questions to Ask Before Conducting a Review
Thank you to Sam Moore of Totem who has given me permission to
feature the 10 questions he lists at:
Review is a key tool for almost all forms of learning. Whether
you call it an 'after action report' or a 'personal reflection',
we must review our actions if we are to learn from them.
Choosing the right form of review is a skilled task, more art
than science. Here are 10 questions to ask yourself before you
dive into your next review:
1. Do we want to review what just happened?
Sometimes it’s important to review as a group, sometimes it’s
best to let the action speak for itself. The individual’s
reflection over time may be enough.
2. Are we ready to review yet?
Even if we want to review the action, are the participants in a
state where it will be useful? Could they do with more time to
process what just happened or are they bursting to share their
3. Is this the right time to review?
Even if we feel ready to review what just happened, is it worth
leaving until we have eaten or are less tired, or do we need to
capture the learning now?
4. Are we in the right location to review?
Sometimes it helps to be at the scene of the action, sometimes
some distance is useful. Is this setting inspirational, will it
help anchor the learning. Are there distractions and are they
5. Are the right people here to ensure a successful review?
Do we need the whole group here? Should we split into smaller
groups? Do some people need to reflect on their own? With or
6. What role will I have in the review?
Should I contribute? Facilitate? Sit quietly? Be absent? Observe?
7. What format and structure will the review take?
Options include: Group discussion, written reports, structured
notes, questionnaires, presentations, personal conversations,
pictures, slide shows.
8. What tools do I have available to me during the review?
Do I have access to exercises, models, pictures and theories that
might help explain my points, or help others to make theirs?
9. Are we going to capture the review for further review?
Is the review of interest to anyone other than the participants?
Will they want a chance to revisit the review again later? Will
they be building on this review?
10. If we are, how?
Sometimes taking notes is useful, what about video? Is there a
formal system in place for reflection that needs to be completed?
You will find more tips for trainers on Sam's page at:
~ PREVIOUS AND NEXT ISSUE OF ACTIVE REVIEWING TIPS
What do Facilitators do? is now at:
Thank you to my New York Team Building fan for enthusing about
the last issue on Facebook: 'Blown away - a must read!'
NEXT ISSUE: REAL REVIEWING
Tips for preventing and overcoming a common problem - when
responses are glib, superficial, repetitive, cliched, dull ...
Plus some tips about thriving in situations where something more
urgent or more real sweeps aside your careful preparations.
Please feel welcome to contribute your own ideas and experiences
on the theme of 'real reviewing'. Write to firstname.lastname@example.org
now if you would like your thoughts included in the next issue -
or wait to be inspired and write in afterwards for the following
Future issues will include:
DESIGNING A REVIEWING STRATEGY for a whole programme
REMOTE REVIEWING - when the facilitator is at least one remove
from the 'reviewing action'
QUESTIONS FOR REVIEWING - will be taking a fresh look at the
art of questioning for facilitators.
REVIEWING IN DIFFERENT CULTURES - a little like the multi-
authored article on Reviewing with Different Ages, I am hoping to
share my own experiences AND find readers who would like to
become writers and contributors.
FACILITATION FRAMES - part two.
Please let me know what you would like to see in a future
issue of Active Reviewing Tips. Or perhaps you have an article or
paragraph or tip you would like to submit?
~ WHAT'S NEW IN THE GUIDE TO ACTIVE REVIEWING
REFLECTION BEFORE ACTION
is a new, improved and retitled version of
'Reviewing for Starters' which you can now find at:
~ About Active Reviewing
EDITOR: Dr. Roger Greenaway, Reviewing Skills Training
9 Drummond Place Lane STIRLING Scotland UK FK8 2JF
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