Debriefing in Experiential Learning:
extracts from articles and papers
extracts below are from articles about debriefing in experiential
choose: skip the search tips for Article Hunters and go straight to
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debriefing articles used to be just one click away, but many of these
articles have since been moved from their original web
address (URL). The original links are retained but are deactivated (so
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HUNTERS: If you want to find or reference the original article,
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- ARCHIVE SEARCH: Copy the original URL (e.g. http://sbaweb.wayne.edu/~absel/bkl/.%5Cjels%5C1-2a.pdf)
into the Wayback Machine
You might be lucky (but not with this example: most publishers and
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- HOME PAGE SEARCH: Find the current home page of the
site where the article was originally published. For example
http://sbaweb.wayne.edu/ is now https://wayne.edu
and there is a handy search box on the home page where you can enter
the title of the article (e.g. 'Debriefing
Experiential Learning Exercises') but this particular
article is not discoverable using the site's search box.
- SITE SEARCH: Using Google's site search may crawl a
bit deeper (e.g. site:wayne.edu Debriefing Experiential
Learning Exercises) but with this example you will again be
disappointed. However you may find a good alternative in the search
- SEARCH ENGINE: Copy the article title (and author's
names too if the title is unexceptional) into your favourite search
engine e.g. Google or Google Scholar. You may discover other places
where the original article is now stored and is available for free
(e.g. at Researchgate.net) or at a price (although neither option is
available for 'Debriefing Experiential Learning
- CITATION SEARCH: In any of
these searches you may find references to the article you are
hunting for. It will clearly be a more recent article and it might
well take the original work further. In this worked example, 'Debriefing for
Meaningful Learning' by Kristina Thomas Dreifuerst might just
be a superior substitute.
- AUTHOR SEARCH: Contact the author(s) of the
If you do find the original or an
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These articles about debriefing in experiential learning mostly come
from the last century (when I did my original search) but 20 years on
(in 2020) nothing much has changed. The key issues are much the same:
- Debriefing is important
People often say that debriefing is important (1,
if they do not fully appreciate why it is important nor understand its
limitations and possibilities, then debriefing risks becoming a dull
- A flexible focus for
Should the focus of debriefing be on what was experienced (19), or on consolidating what has
already been learned (8, 10, 16),
on creating new learning (21) or
on transfer and change (1, 4, 5, 9)? There is a strong case for each,
so the question becomes how do you choose the optimum focus in each
- Who chooses how to
debrief? Is debriefing simply about asking participants a
series of questions (6, 18) or can debriefing be more effective if
using a more imaginative range of methods (26,
31) and giving participants more
freedom and choice about the debriefing process (14,
- A single stage or
How many steps or stages are there in an effective debrief? Some
debriefing models are quite elaborate (9,
whereas others go for simplicity (14)
or (apparently) no model at all (30).
- What is debriefing?
Defining "debriefing" might help (2).
While some definitions seem more infinite than definite (8), others can be more concise (16), perhaps too concise ...
- Does "experiential
knowing" make debriefing redundant?
Holistic and integrated models of debriefing suggest a different kind
of dynamic between experience and learning. For example, having
experienced something significant (without debriefing it) and having
articulated what was significant from that experience may be of
comparable value. Moreover, both experiential and articulated
knowledge can gain value if they can be connected through debriefing.
These kinds of issues are explored in (5,
- Do we already know
everything there is to know about debriefing?
New thinking about debriefing might be needed (5)
- Debriefing to
detoxify damaging beliefs?
One new idea - debriefing as "detoxification" (12)
- seems to put too much power into the hands of
"the-facilitator-who-knows-best". But if an individual has a
toxic/damaging self-belief, or if group-think is harming a group's
potential, a challenging debrief may help to reverse a downward
spiral. The work of John Heron (in The Complete Facilitator) describes
a number of different strategies for challenging such
assumptions/beliefs directly or indirectly.
- Is ambiguity in
debriefing good, bad or inevitable? Experiential tension (13) and providing ambiguity (24) are ways of thinking about debriefing
that recognise some of the messiness in experiential learning and
suggest ways of working with it - without necessarily seeking
concisely articulated clarity as the goal of every debrief.
- Debrief always or
sometimes? And who decides what is appropriate?
Contradicting view that debriefing is not always necessary (13) is the recommendation to always debrief (20). I would adopt a definition of
debriefing that allows for any of the possibilities outlined on this
page, so that the facilitator and participants can choose whether,
how, when and why a debrief would be important. I have grown to like
"debrief appropriately" (30) but
those two words need to have a lot of wisdom and choices behind them -
not just a void and an excuse to move on to the next activity.
Creating a list of questions about
debriefing (as I have just done) is the relatively easy part. Thinking
through these questions and coming up with a coherent model that takes
the issues raised into account - well that is the more difficult part.
My best attempt at achieving this (in one article) is probably "The Art of Reviewing". ("Reviewing"
is often synonymous with "debriefing"). Reviewing
and debriefing are explored more thoroughly (in theory and practice)
in my Active
Reviewing website. The articles
index probably gives you the best overview of the topics I cover.
And look out for my forthcoming book!
1. Debriefing: important but overlooked
"The major responsibility for conducting successful experiential
learning exercises rests with the debriefing phase of the exercise. The
debriefing is an important process designed to synergize, strengthen,
and transfer learning from the experiential exercise. It is often the
most overlooked part of the experiential learning process."
Debriefing Experiential Learning Exercises
D.D. Warrick et al: Warrick, Hunsaker, Cook, Altman.
Journal of Experiential Learning and Simulation 1? 91-100 (1979)
Debriefing has been an assumed part of the simulation process, but there
has been little discussion of debriefing in simulation circles. Most
discussions on debriefing have focused on experiential exercises and games
(Markulis & Strang, 2002). Simulation debriefing discussions have
generally been limited to statements that debriefing is important and/or
suggestions on techniques...
Simulation Debriefing Procedures
D.J. Fritzsche et al: Fritzsche, Leonard, Boscia, Anderson
Developments in Business Simulation and Experiential Learning, Volume
[Navigation tip: click/tap the back button - if you have one - to return
to the link that you last clicked/tapped.]
2. Debriefing: important but
Debriefing has been an important topic for ABSEL
scholars over the past several years. Most educators would agree that
debriefing is an important component of the learning process. Debriefing
usually occurs at the end of an experiential exercise or computerized
simulation and is a way to help students bring closure to the experience.
Nevertheless, debriefing remains ill-defined, unsystematically used and
not fully tested or proven experimentally. In particular, the authors
found that promoters of debriefing seldom explain the rationale of the
process or how to actually use it with a particular exercise or
simulation. This paper reviews some of the ABSEL scholarship related to
debriefing in an attempt to summarize, categorize and clarify the
debriefing process. The paper discusses various definitions and
descriptions of debriefing, presents several debriefing strategies and
techniques, develops a taxonomy of debriefing categories, offers some
research issues on debriefing and concludes with some recommendations
about the theory and methodology of debriefing. [Comment/Spoiler: the
recommendation is to relate debriefing to Bloom's Taxonomy.]
3. The intensity of participant contributions in the
For experiential learning activities to be successful, sufficient time
is needed for both briefing the participants before the activity to
ensure roles and aims are fully understood, and most importantly,
debriefing after the experience to reflect on the lessons learnt and
relate theoretical input from lectures and readings to the students' own
experiences (Boud, Keogh & Walker, 1985). The duration of the
workshop provides a context where students can develop social skills in
terms of interdependence, communication networks, teamworking,
powersharing, and organisational politicking. This climate has the
potential to enhance cognitive and critical thinking competencies as
students will find it essential that they integrate their social skills
with self directed learning competencies such as independence, self
determination, initiative and innovation...
In conclusion, the simulations have added another dimension to teaching
and learning in two management related courses at our university.
Favourable reports from the students have been encouraging and the
intention is to expand this mode of teaching not only for its
popularity, but because of the intensity of participant contributions in
both the activity phase as well as the debriefing session.
Pearson, Cecil A. L. and Beasley, Colin J.
From aeroplanes to stoves: Using experiential learning in a management
In Black, B. and Stanley, N. (Eds), Teaching and Learning in
Changing Times, 248-254.
Proceedings of the 7th Annual Teaching Learning Forum,
The University of Western Australia, February 1998. Perth: UWA.
4. Debriefing for deeper reflection and skills
By providing contrived, but realistic situations, experiential learning
was possible, and debriefing followed each scenario, which helped
students reflect more deeply on their experiences. The students
expressed a high level of satisfaction with the workshops and requested
Debriefing or reflection is an essential part of experiential learning.
Students must be debriefed upon completion of an activity with comments
from participants, observers, and facilitators (Richmond and Gorham
1992). Debriefing assists in focusing the students on what they have
achieved and reflecting on how they will transfer their new skills to
natural behaviour (Richmond and Gorham 1992)...
As a result of student feedback, future sessions will include more role
play practice and more time for more intensive debriefing sessions.
Mills, J. N. and Fretz, B. (1999).
Teaching dilemma: How to effectively teach professional (Veterinary)
students to improve their communication skills in a practice situation.
In K. Martin, N. Stanley and N. Davison (Eds), Teaching in the
Disciplines/ Learning in Context, 282-286.
Proceedings of the 8th Annual Teaching Learning Forum,
The University of Western Australia, February 1999. Perth: UWA.
5. Applying a new paradigm of
change to experiential debriefing
Experiential learning has gained light years in sophistication and
effectiveness since its evolution began in the 1960s. Gass's
introduction of isomorphic metaphors in the early '90s has advanced the
state of the art by showing how to create metaphorical experiences that
can match a real-life situation in great detail (Gass, 1993b). Our
mastery of the debrief phase and learning transfer that follows activity
remains perhaps a step behind, however (Wagner & Roland, 1995). In
this article I will argue that the reason for this lag is that our
understanding of change itself is grounded in the dominant "action
paradigm" (Prochaska, 1999a). Bringing a recent and revolutionary
paradigm shift on change to bear on experiential learning can lead to
even greater advances in our work.
The purpose of this article is to show how experiential learning in all
its forms-adventure therapy, corporate-based teambuilding and group
development, educational programming, and other applications-can become
more meaningful and effective in its debriefing through the application
of the Transtheoretical Model (Prochaska & DiClemente, 1982), a
stage-based model of change. To do so, I will first introduce the model
and compare it with an experiential education model in widespread use
today. I will then show how it can be applied in our field, both
conceptually and with a case example from my work in adventure therapy
at an inpatient psychiatric and addictions treatment facility. And
finally, I will offer some thoughts and suggestions on how practitioners
could pick up where this article leaves off and take this work onwards.
Debriefing: Definition and Benefits
Porter T. (1999).
Beyond metaphor: applying a new paradigm of change to experiential
The Journal of Experiential Education, 22(2), 85-90.
Different types of debriefing question
are associated with the different stages of the experiential learning
Maximising learning from work-related
Qualifications and Curriculum Authority
Page updated: Tuesday, August 10, 2004. Retrieved May 2006
7. Utilize debriefing sessions to reinforce
Debriefing- an unobtrusive chat that discusses the instructional
method, learning, and obstacles that occurred. It acknowledges the
knowledge or skill obtained and reflects on the learning that took
place and plans for material changes or adaptations. Debriefing
requires an agreement from the participants to maintain a safe
environment where the individual is accepted and to allow participants
speak openly. Debriefings contain constructive and not personal
criticism. The instructor must keep control of the classroom. The
debrief brings closure to the exercise. A good ending to the debrief
is “Are there comments before we move on?”
8. Experiential Learning
At the heart of all learning is the way we process our experiences,
especially our critical reflections on our experiences. Though there
is no one consistent definition of experiential education, many
point to the definition set forth by the Association of Experiential
Education: "it is a process through which a learner constructs
knowledge, skill and value from direct experiences". In 2001 the
task force on Experiential Education at St. Olaf College broadly
defined experiential education as the study, action and reflection
of a "hands on" experience.
As the CEL's programs and activities have matured and refined, so
has our definition of experiential learning into one that engages
students in critical thinking, problem solving and decision making
in contexts that are personally relevant and connected to academic
learning objectives by incorporating active learning. This approach
requires the making of opportunities for debriefing and
consolidation of ideas and skills through reflection, feedback and
the application of the ideas and skills to new situations.
Effective experiential education requires a well-designed,
multi-disciplinary and interactive learning approach that involves the
student, faculty and CEL staff in the sequential steps of planning,
experiencing or doing, sharing, processing, generalizing, feedback and
applying to further and future planning.
Experiential Learning Definition
St. Olaf College, Center for
9. A nine-step structure
This article outlines a nine-step structure for debriefing an
international business culture simulation. The authors argue
that proper attention is often not paid to this critical aspect
of experiential learning which addresses three stages in the
experiential learning cycle: reflection, processing and
transfer. The rationale for the debriefing structure is
explained and sample questions are provided at each stage.
Whilst the structure is discussed specifically in the context of
an international business culture simulation, the model may have
a much wider applicability to other experiential learning
exercises. The simulation used by the authors and a debriefing
note are included in the appendices.
Ian Palmer (2001)
Structured Debriefing Process for International Business
Journal of Teaching in International
11 Issue: 2
0897-5930 Pub Date: 3/1/2001,
Pages: 39 - 53
10. Debriefing includes: reflection,
consolidation and application
At the heart of all learning is
the way we process our experiences, especially our critical
reflections on our experiences. This module introduces
experiential education as a key approach to student-centred
learning for a sustainable future. Experiential learning
engages students in critical thinking, problem solving and
decision making in contexts that are personally relevant to
them. This approach to learning also involves making
opportunities for debriefing and consolidation of ideas and
skills through feedback, reflection, and the application of
the ideas and skills to new situations...
Reflection is part of the debriefing process. Debriefing is
the name given to what teachers do in class to help students
process the information and make generalisations from their
experiences. Debriefing is an important phase of experiential
learning because it helps students to:
- Learn through reflecting on what they have done;
- Consolidate their concepts and generalisations about the
topic being studied through the process of reflection and
with guidance by their teachers; and
- Apply what they have learnt in new situations.
Teaching and Learning 18 Experiential Learning
Teaching and Learning for a Sustainable Future UNESCO 2001
11. The history of oral debriefing
Oral debriefing in the US military
Oral debriefing in industry
Embarking on an oral debriefing programme
Corporate DNA: Using Organizational
Memory to Improve Poor Decision-Making
12. Debriefing as detoxification
In the debriefing, the instructor acknowledges their experience
by exploring the advantages and disadvantages of these
variations with them. However, the assumption remains that the
instructor’s experience is more accurate than the students’ and
he or she won’t hesitate to discard specific variations as
‘wrong’ for reasons of safety, ease of handling, longevity of
ropes and so on. To be clear: I support this practice, yet I
want to question the tendency to consider learning activities in
which the instructor considers the learners’ experience to be
less valid than his or her own, ‘experiential’...
With regard to the second question, the recent proposal of “a
new paradigm of change (for) experiential debriefing” (Porter,
1999, pg. 85) not only illustrates that some forms of adventure
education assume that the facilitators’ experience is more valid
than the learners’, but also recommends such a practice in
“experiential debriefing”. Illustrating her paradigm with a
concrete program event, the author describes how she “often
needs to spend considerable time” convincing her program
participants that their experience of a certain learning
activity is inappropriate. In line with the metaphoric blueprint
that she – the facilitator – brings to the activity, she refers
to this intervention as “detoxifying their response” (pg. 88).
In ways very similar to the hard skill instructor’s
clarification of desirable and undesirable rope techniques, she
thus defines for her participants which interpretations of the
event are acceptable and which are not.
Australian Journal of Outdoor
Education - Vol 6 No. 1, 2001.
13. Managing experiential tension (and
overestimating the importance of debriefing)
instructors seek to locate their search for effectiveness in
the context of learning how to debrief. It is
interesting that in a field which has prided itself since its
beginning on experiential learning, that many outdoor
educators in the 1980’s and 1990’s have turned almost about
face to look for the key to learning in debriefing.
Experienced practitioners know there is an overestimation by
inexperienced instructors of the importance of
debriefing. While debriefing can certainly play an
important role in experiential learning, it is a fallacy that
is always necessary or that effective learning can’t occur
without debriefing. An appropriate metaphor is that
debriefing represents the tip of the iceberg.
Nine-tenths of the iceberg, which is the learning that
occurred during the experience, occurs out of sight,
underneath the water, often unconsciously. Perhaps
one-tenth of the learning occurs consciously and out of the
water, when people may sit around to talk about it.
There are even sound arguments for when debriefing can
interfere with the learning process. The point here is
not to delegitimize debriefing but to argue that attempts to
improve instructor effectiveness should be more holistic than
learning to debrief. With such an approach, debriefing
will naturally find an appropriate place.
learning is more fundamental and holistic than
debriefing. The key to guiding this learning is for
instructors to create situations in which participants will
experience an appropriate tension which can be managed in a
developmental direction. Once the process has been
begun, the instructor’s job is to monitor that the
experiential tension is moving each participant in a positive
direction. If not, he/she must alter the experience for
the participant in some way. The skills and awareness
necessary for guided discovery learning are often subtle, but
14. Debriefing as
facilitated self-reflection (in action learning)
Debriefing. This process of "facilitated self-reflection" is
essential to the action learning process. Linkage provides
participants with tools that encourage them to reflect and
provide each other with feedback.
Action + Learning = Change
© 1997-2002 Leapfrog Innovations, Inc..
15. Debriefing the experience allows
participants to integrate their learning
Debriefing the experience is what moves an experience beyond
"learning-by-doing." The primary purpose of debriefing is to
allow participants the opportunity to integrate their
learning. They have a sense of closure or completeness to
their experience. In order for youth to take what they have
just experienced and use it effectively in their everyday
lives, they must think about it and interpret its meaning for
themselves (Hammel 1986).
Thomas D. Zurcher, Ph.D.
Center for 4-H Youth Development, U of Minnesota
Experiential Learning in 4-H Project Experiences
16. The value of debriefing in
Debriefing assists learners to:
- process the experience by reflecting upon their
- clarify concepts and form generalisations by
- identifying and consolidating what they have learnt, and
- relating this learning to previously learnt material or
to related learning materials (e.g. the textbook, a video,
an experiment, a field trip, etc.); and
- apply what they have learnt to new situations.
The Importance of Debriefing
from Experiential Learning
Based on Draft Module by Barry Law
17. Debriefing for comprehension and
You must remember that experiential learning involves
both the activity and immediate follow-up in the form of
debriefing and processing. Debriefing is a time during
which the experiential activities can be explained. They
are broken down to the basic levels of activity focus
and intent. Processing, which is closely associated with
debriefing, provides closure to the experiential
activity. This final stage involves assisting the
participants to comprehend and internalize their
experiences, and the lessons learned from them. Wrapping
up the experiential exercise, processing can point out
how to utilize past experiences in making future
Debriefing and processing should occur after each
experiential learning activity. It is a time when all of
the participants can reflect upon and talk about their
recent experiences. The purpose of these sessions is to
generate discussion that in some way enlightens each
18. Debriefing with sequenced
questions (funneling) but without making statements
In debriefing, facilitators
ask clients for their opinions and refrain from making
statements to clients. In this way, clients learn to
think for themselves and begin to take ownership over
confronting issues (educational programs). If they
"own" their issues, they are more likely to commit to
changing the situation and to following through on
their commitments. In a debrief discussion, clients
are asked (under the guidance of a questioning
facilitator) to reflect on their experiences and to
discuss points of learning that they believe took
place. The discussion can take a free form and shift
from topic to topic as the group needs or can be
prescribed or "funneled" in a direction that the
facilitator determines is best. This latter type of
debriefing is called funneling, where questions are
carefully sequenced toward an outcome.
In debriefing the experience, a
facilitator would foster a group discussion
concerning the details, analysis, and evaluation of
the group's behaviour following activity completion.
Sample questions of this facilitational style might
include: "what happened?, what was the impact of
this?, how did that make you feel?, what did you
learn from this?, what aspects for this activity
were metaphors of your life?, and what will you do
differently next time?"
19. Debriefing combines the
experiential mind with the rational mind = whole-brain
YOU ARE OF TWO MINDS
Professor Seymour Epstein at the University of
Massachusetts has a ground-breaking theory of intelligence
called Cognitive Experiential Self Theory
(CEST), which suggests that we have an experiential mind
and a rational mind. Our experiential mind learns
directly, thinks quickly, pays attention to the outcome,
and forgets slowly. Our rational mind learns indirectly,
thinks deliberately, pays attention to the process, and
forgets rapidly. Epstein's contention is that you need
both your minds. Games and interactive strategies appeal
directly to the experiential mind. When combined with
debriefing discussions, they provide a powerfully balanced
approach to whole-brain learning.
How To Persuade People that Training Games
Produce Effective Learning
Copyright © 2000. Workshops by Thiagi, Inc. All rights
Always debrief. This is the opportunity to tie the
experience to the concepts and principles. Don't
assume that participants will get it automatically.
Lead it out of them, don't pull it out. (John
Don't be afraid to fail: a less-than-successful
game can be artfully debriefed into a
more-than-meaningful learning experience.
Play for Performance,
game is just an excuse for the debriefing discussion.
Real learning occurs
through the integration of an experiential activity
and a debriefing discussion. This pithy saying focuses
on the importance of debriefing to complete the
You can facilitate a
debriefing session after conducting any type of game.
For example, I recently asked participants to play
tic-tac-toe and conducted a debriefing discussion to
reflect on the experience and to explore such topics
as strategic planning and flexible implementation.
Not all games benefit from
a debriefing session. If the training game focuses on
factual information or mechanical procedures,
conducting a debriefing discussion is a waste of time.
On the other hand, if you are using a simulation game
or a roleplay exercise to explore such elements as
feelings, emotions, values, beliefs, and interpersonal
interactions, then most of the real learning comes
from the debriefing.
Here are three key
situations in which debriefing helps us capture,
consolidate, and reinforce learning insights from a
game or an experiential activity.
1. When the
connection between the game and its real-world
analogue is not obvious. For example, in
the simulation game Barnga,
participants learn to play a card game at different
tables. Unknown to the players, the rules at each
table are slightly different from the rules at the
other tables. Later during the game, chaos and
confusion result when players switch tables and
continue to play. The card game inside Barnga
reflects routine human interactions. The rule
differences reflect cultural differences. They ensure
unanticipated culture shocks. These abstract
connections are not obvious to the players until they
are brought out during debriefing.
2. When the game
is likely to arouse intense feelings and emotions.
For example, in the game Me
And My Team, participants feel paranoid
during the last round when a hefty cash prize is
secretly available to the team member who is willing
to betray her team. The debriefing discussion helps
participants to become aware of their feelings and
relate them to similar situations in the workplace.
3. When the
activity requires a total system view of multiple
factors. For example, in the game Quality,
quick decisions made by team members affect their
scores on 18 different variables. The debriefing
discussion after the game enables participants to
discover relationships among different decisions and
In these three situations,
the game truly becomes an excuse for a reflective
Play for Performance, January 2006
Debriefing with a project team
Debriefing meetings provide
the team members with the opportunity to give some
direct feedback about the project, including an
in-depth view of what went well and what did not go
well. It is an opportunity for project leadership to
probe deeper into project issues and begin getting to
the root causes of these issues. Debriefing meetings
usually last from one to two hours.
The entire project team should have the opportunity to
participate. The more people providing direct verbal
feedback to the project leadership, the better. Larger
projects may require a series of meetings. At the
Debriefing Meeting the team members discuss project
issues in a structured format. A facilitator guides
the group in probing deeply into a pre-selected list
of issues. The meeting allows team members an
opportunity to vent and get closure. It is also a good
place to capture what went well on the Project...
Unless guided by a skilled
facilitator, debriefing meetings can evolve into
"dumping" sessions by disgruntled team members who
monopolize precious time and often fixate on one issue
at the expense of other, more critical ones. Make sure
you have a strong, experienced facilitator who can
keep control of the meeting.
Debrief: (?), v.
to interrogate (a person) who has recently experienced
an event, to obtain information about that experience;
-- used especially of military pilots or diplomatic
agents who have just returned from a mission.
Debriefing after an activity allows students to express their
thoughts and feelings, cementing what they have learned.
The instructor can assess how successful students have been at
integrating and assimilating new knowledge.
The instructor also gets insight into how to improve the activity
the next time.
Effective debriefing fosters a positive classroom environment and
communicates to students that their participation is vital to the
The Role of
Debriefing in the Interactive Classroom
24. Debriefing Experiential
Learning Exercises in Ethics Education
major conclusion of this paper is that to obtain optimum pay-off from
using experiential learning exercises in teaching business ethics,
faculty must pay close attention to debriefing. The paper presents an
approach based on a conceptual model for systematic and analytical
debriefing of experiential learning exercises in ethics education. The
paper also suggests that faculty must provide structure and ambiguity so
that students can personalize the learning – experiencing meaningfulness
(i.e., usefulness) in its application – so that learning is relevant to
Ronald R. Sims,
Teaching Business Ethics
(Paper) 1573-1944 (Online)
Issue: Volume 6,
Number 2 Pages: 179 - 197
Learning Exercises in Ethics Education
The DEEP Initiative [was at
http://www.etdalliance.com/whois_etdalliance.htm] The Definition, Ethics
and Exemplary Practices of Experiential Training and Development (DEEP
ETD) Initiative is described as ''the first definitive piece of collective
work to define experiential training and development, create a code of
ethical conduct and articulate a set of exemplary practices.''
international experiential learning exercises
Over the years the use of experiential
learning exercises as a vehicle for improving managers knowledge,
skills and abilities has steadily increased. And, more recently
experiential learning exercises have become natural components in
organizational efforts to better prepare their managers to more
effectively manage in the international marketplace. This paper
discusses the importance of the debriefing phase in international
experiential learning exercises by presenting a framework to improve
the debriefing phase of such exercises.
Developments In Business Simulation
& Experiential Exercises, Volume 20, 1993 47
DEBRIEFING INTERNATIONAL EXPERIENTIAL LEARNING EXERCISES: ROAD SIGNS
Robert F. Dennehy, Pace University
Ronald R. Sims, College of William and Mary
The design of an experiential exercise is
comprised of three key characters: the instructor, the facilitator and
the learner, whose interactions affect the learner. This interaction
takes place within the dimensions of a facility having a variety of
technical advantages, such as videotape recording and other equipment,
or simply in a classroom. The exercise, itself, is not complete
without the added dimension of a debrief which may be in any of
several alternative formats, ranging from the instructor talking with
the learner to the sophisticated use of video equipment.
Insights into Experiential Pedagogy,
Volume 6, 1979 325
A PRACTICAL DESIGN FOR EXPERIENTIAL LEARNING EXERCISES: ROLES,
TECHNICAL EQUIPMENT AND ALTERNATIVE DEBRIEFING FORMATS
Sidney J. Ward III, University of Southern California
27. How to design a
Tells leaders how to design
debriefing and processing sessions that allow outdoor education
participants to integrate learning and achieve closure to
experiences by setting aside time to reflect; asking proper
questions; planning appropriate reflective activities; assessing
collective and individual needs of group; and balancing variety,
flexibility, timing, and location.
Hammel, Heidi (1986)
Design a Debriefing Session.
Journal of Experiential Education
Enhancing Understanding Through Debriefing
debriefing strategies to help students organize, compare,
classify, evaluate, summarize, or analyze an experience and
determine its meaning. Discusses several possible activities
leading to increased understanding, including writing logs,
diaries, or summaries, naming themes, imagining alternatives,
evaluating, role-playing, drawing, comparing, and concept
mapping. Includes four references.
Raths, James (1987)
Enhancing Understanding Through Debriefing
Sivasailam Thiagarajan :
'Using games for debriefing'
Barbara Steinwachssing: 'How to facilitate a debriefing'
Petranek, Susan Corey and Rebecca Black: 'Three
levels of learning in simulations: participating,
and journal writing' in
Simulation and Gaming archive
Volume 23 , Issue 2 (June 1992)
Special issue: debriefing
Sage Publications, Inc
30. Debrief appropriately
Introduction to DEEP
Initiative Version 6.2 March 18, 1999
Practitioner Competencies (Section D) Comment:
I have expressed my concern to the DEEP Initiative that ''reviewing
skills'' are a little understated in just one 2 word competency:
''2.2.6 Debrief appropriately''. In all other areas, the consortium
seems to have done a very professional job. They still welcome
feedback and discussion about the document - so maybe they do have
quite a strong commitment to reviewing after all? Take a look and see
what you think.
31. A variety of debriefing models
Good educational game design is about providing an
engaging experience for learners. Experiential training games have been
used in fields such as medicine, business, outdoor adventures and
military operations for decades ... The purpose of this paper is to
explore some of these models of debriefing and to present a variety of
methods that educational software creators can use to include debriefing
in their experiential educational games.
Experience: Debriefing in Experiential Educational Games.
Scott NICHOLSON School of Information Studies
Syracuse University, Syracuse, NY 13244, USA
ISSN: 1690-4524 SYSTEMICS, CYBERNETICS AND INFORMATICS 2013: 11(6)
32. The debrief as student-centred
This paper highlights the
importance of conducting structured, student-centered discussions, known
as debriefs, following experiential learning activities in health
education. Drawing upon Kolb’s experiential learning theory and
literature from scholars in simulation-based training, the authors
outline key considerations for planning and facilitating debriefs.
Planning and Facilitating
Debriefs of Experiential Learning Activities in Skills-Based Health
Journal of Health Education Teaching, 2017; 8(1): 61-76 Copyright:
Authors:Judith A. Johns, Matthew T. Moyer, Lisa M. Gasque
References within the above quotations.
Boud, D., Cohen, R. & Walker, D. (eds.) (1993). Using experience
for learning. Milton Keynes: SRHE and Open University Press.
Porter T. (1999). Beyond metaphor: applying a new paradigm of change to
experiential debriefing. The Journal of Experiential Education, 22(2),
Richmond, V. P. and Gorham, J. (1992). Communication, learning and
effect in instruction. Edina, MN: Burgess International Group, Inc.
Selected references from the reference sections of the above articles
Boud, D. et al (eds) (1985) Reflection. Turning Experience into Learning,
Boud. D. and Miller, N. (eds) (1997) Working with Experience: Animating
Burnard, P. (1988) Experiential learning: Some theoretical considerations,
Lifelong Education, 7(20), pp. 127-133.
Chapman, S. (1992) What is experiential education?, The Journal of
Education, 15(2), pp. 16-23.
Cornell, J. (1989) Sharing the Joy of Nature, Dawn Publications, Nevada
Cowan, J. (1988) Learning to facilitate experiential learning, Studies in
Education, 10(1), pp. 19-29.
Heron, J. (1989) The Facilitator's Handbook, Kogan Page, London.
Kolb, D. (1984) Experiential Learning: Experience as the Source of
Development, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs.
Knapp C. (1997) Lasting Lessons: A Teacher's Guide to Reflecting on
ERIC Clearinghouse on Rural Education and Small Schools, Charleston.
Tennant, M. (1997) Psychology and Adult Learning, 2nd ed., Routledge
Usher, R. (1993) Experiential learning or learning from experience: does
it make a
difference?, in D. Boud, R. Cohen and D. Walker (eds) Using Experience for
Open University Press, Buckingham.
Westheimer, J., Kahne, J. and Gerstein, A. (1992) Reforms for the
Opportunities and obstacles for experiential educators, The Journal of
Education, 15(2), pp. 44-49.
Whitaker, P. (1995) Managing to Learn: Aspects of Reflecting and
Learning in Schools, Cassell, London.
Hammel, H. (1986). How to Design a Debriefing Session. Journal of
Hendricks, P. A.. (1996) Targeting Life Skills Model. University
Extension, Iowa State University.
Kolb, D. (1974) Organizational Psychology. Englewood Cliffs, MF:
Quinsland, L.K. (1984) How to Process Experience. Journal of Experiential
Education, Vol. 7,
Islands of Healing - ISBN 0-7872192-4-X: A basic guide to processing or
debriefing experiential activities.
extracts above are from articles about debriefing in experiential
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