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Debriefing in Experiential Learning:
extracts from articles and papers

The selected extracts below are from articles about debriefing in experiential learning.

You choose: skip the search tips for Article Hunters and go straight to the List of Questions about Debriefing

These debriefing articles used to be just one click away, but many of these articles have since been moved from their original web address (URL). The original links are retained but are deactivated (so as not to disappoint link-following humans or robots).

ARTICLE HUNTERS: If you want to find or reference the original article, try one of these methods:

  1. ARCHIVE SEARCH: Copy the original URL (e.g. into the Wayback Machine You might be lucky (but not with this example: most publishers and universities seem to prevent old pages from appearing in this internet archive).
  2. HOME PAGE SEARCH: Find the current home page of the site where the article was originally published. For example is now and there is a handy search box on the home page where you can enter the title of the article (e.g. 'Debriefing Experiential Learning Exercises') but this particular article is not discoverable using the site's search box.
  3. SITE SEARCH: Using Google's site search may crawl a bit deeper (e.g. Debriefing Experiential Learning Exercises) but with this example you will again be disappointed. However you may find a good alternative in the search results.
  4. SEARCH ENGINE: Copy the article title (and author's names too if the title is unexceptional) into your favourite search engine e.g. Google or Google Scholar. You may discover other places where the original article is now stored and is available for free (e.g. at or at a price (although neither option is available for 'Debriefing Experiential Learning Exercises').
  5. CITATION SEARCH: In any of these searches you may find references to the article you are hunting for. It will clearly be a more recent article and it might well take the original work further. In this worked example, 'Debriefing for Meaningful Learning' by Kristina Thomas Dreifuerst might just be a superior substitute.
  6. AUTHOR SEARCH: Contact the author(s) of the article.

If you do find the original or an article about debriefing in experiential learning that merits inclusion on this page, please let me know

A list of questions about debriefing
by Roger Greenaway

These articles about debriefing in experiential learning mostly come from the last century (when I did my original search) but 20 years on (in 2020) nothing much has changed. The key issues are much the same:

Creating a list of questions about debriefing (as I have just done) is the relatively easy part. Thinking through these questions and coming up with a coherent model that takes the issues raised into account - well that is the more difficult part. My best attempt at achieving this (in one article) is probably "The Art of Reviewing". ("Reviewing" is often synonymous with "debriefing"). Reviewing and debriefing are explored more thoroughly (in theory and practice) in my Active Reviewing website. The articles index probably gives you the best overview of the topics I cover. And look out for my forthcoming book!

Roger Greenaway

1. Debriefing: important but overlooked

"The major responsibility for conducting successful experiential learning exercises rests with the debriefing phase of the exercise. The debriefing is an important process designed to synergize, strengthen, and transfer learning from the experiential exercise. It is often the most overlooked part of the experiential learning process."

Debriefing Experiential Learning Exercises
D.D. Warrick et al: Warrick, Hunsaker, Cook, Altman.
Journal of Experiential Learning and Simulation 1? 91-100 (1979)

Debriefing has been an assumed part of the simulation process, but there has been little discussion of debriefing in simulation circles. Most discussions on debriefing have focused on experiential exercises and games (Markulis & Strang, 2002). Simulation debriefing discussions have generally been limited to statements that debriefing is important and/or suggestions on techniques...
Simulation Debriefing Procedures
D.J. Fritzsche et al: Fritzsche, Leonard, Boscia, Anderson
Developments in Business Simulation and Experiential Learning, Volume 31, 2004

[Navigation tip: click/tap the back button - if you have one - to return to the link that you last clicked/tapped.]

2. Debriefing: important but ill-defined

Debriefing has been an important topic for ABSEL scholars over the past several years. Most educators would agree that debriefing is an important component of the learning process. Debriefing usually occurs at the end of an experiential exercise or computerized simulation and is a way to help students bring closure to the experience. Nevertheless, debriefing remains ill-defined, unsystematically used and not fully tested or proven experimentally. In particular, the authors found that promoters of debriefing seldom explain the rationale of the process or how to actually use it with a particular exercise or simulation. This paper reviews some of the ABSEL scholarship related to debriefing in an attempt to summarize, categorize and clarify the debriefing process. The paper discusses various definitions and descriptions of debriefing, presents several debriefing strategies and techniques, develops a taxonomy of debriefing categories, offers some research issues on debriefing and concludes with some recommendations about the theory and methodology of debriefing. [Comment/Spoiler: the recommendation is to relate debriefing to Bloom's Taxonomy.]
A brief on debriefing: what it is and what it isn't
Peter M. Markulis Developments in Business Simulation and Experiential Learning, Volume 30, 2003
[originally published at:]

3. The intensity of participant contributions in the debriefing session

For experiential learning activities to be successful, sufficient time is needed for both briefing the participants before the activity to ensure roles and aims are fully understood, and most importantly, debriefing after the experience to reflect on the lessons learnt and relate theoretical input from lectures and readings to the students' own experiences (Boud, Keogh & Walker, 1985). The duration of the workshop provides a context where students can develop social skills in terms of interdependence, communication networks, teamworking, powersharing, and organisational politicking. This climate has the potential to enhance cognitive and critical thinking competencies as students will find it essential that they integrate their social skills with self directed learning competencies such as independence, self determination, initiative and innovation...

In conclusion, the simulations have added another dimension to teaching and learning in two management related courses at our university. Favourable reports from the students have been encouraging and the intention is to expand this mode of teaching not only for its popularity, but because of the intensity of participant contributions in both the activity phase as well as the debriefing session.

Pearson, Cecil A. L. and Beasley, Colin J. (1998).
From aeroplanes to stoves: Using experiential learning in a management course.
In Black, B. and Stanley, N. (Eds), Teaching and Learning in Changing Times, 248-254.
Proceedings of the 7th Annual Teaching Learning Forum,
The University of Western Australia, February 1998. Perth: UWA.

4. Debriefing for deeper reflection and skills transfer

By providing contrived, but realistic situations, experiential learning was possible, and debriefing followed each scenario, which helped students reflect more deeply on their experiences. The students expressed a high level of satisfaction with the workshops and requested more...

Debriefing or reflection is an essential part of experiential learning. Students must be debriefed upon completion of an activity with comments from participants, observers, and facilitators (Richmond and Gorham 1992). Debriefing assists in focusing the students on what they have achieved and reflecting on how they will transfer their new skills to natural behaviour (Richmond and Gorham 1992)...

As a result of student feedback, future sessions will include more role play practice and more time for more intensive debriefing sessions.

Mills, J. N. and Fretz, B. (1999).
Teaching dilemma: How to effectively teach professional (Veterinary) students to improve their communication skills in a practice situation.
In K. Martin, N. Stanley and N. Davison (Eds), Teaching in the Disciplines/ Learning in Context, 282-286.
Proceedings of the 8th Annual Teaching Learning Forum,
The University of Western Australia, February 1999. Perth: UWA.

5. Applying a new paradigm of change to experiential debriefing

Experiential learning has gained light years in sophistication and effectiveness since its evolution began in the 1960s. Gass's introduction of isomorphic metaphors in the early '90s has advanced the state of the art by showing how to create metaphorical experiences that can match a real-life situation in great detail (Gass, 1993b). Our mastery of the debrief phase and learning transfer that follows activity remains perhaps a step behind, however (Wagner & Roland, 1995). In this article I will argue that the reason for this lag is that our understanding of change itself is grounded in the dominant "action paradigm" (Prochaska, 1999a). Bringing a recent and revolutionary paradigm shift on change to bear on experiential learning can lead to even greater advances in our work.

The purpose of this article is to show how experiential learning in all its forms-adventure therapy, corporate-based teambuilding and group development, educational programming, and other applications-can become more meaningful and effective in its debriefing through the application of the Transtheoretical Model (Prochaska & DiClemente, 1982), a stage-based model of change. To do so, I will first introduce the model and compare it with an experiential education model in widespread use today. I will then show how it can be applied in our field, both conceptually and with a case example from my work in adventure therapy at an inpatient psychiatric and addictions treatment facility. And finally, I will offer some thoughts and suggestions on how practitioners could pick up where this article leaves off and take this work onwards.

Porter T. (1999).
Beyond metaphor: applying a new paradigm of change to experiential debriefing.
The Journal of Experiential Education, 22(2), 85-90.

6. Debriefing questions

Different types of debriefing question are associated with the different stages of the experiential learning cycle:
Maximising learning from work-related experiences
Qualifications and Curriculum Authority
Page updated: Tuesday, August 10, 2004. Retrieved May 2006*/

7. Utilize debriefing sessions to reinforce learning

Debriefing- an unobtrusive chat that discusses the instructional method, learning, and obstacles that occurred. It acknowledges the knowledge or skill obtained and reflects on the learning that took place and plans for material changes or adaptations. Debriefing requires an agreement from the participants to maintain a safe environment where the individual is accepted and to allow participants speak openly. Debriefings contain constructive and not personal criticism. The instructor must keep control of the classroom. The debrief brings closure to the exercise. A good ending to the debrief is “Are there comments before we move on?”
Instructional Methods

8. Experiential Learning Definition

At the heart of all learning is the way we process our experiences, especially our critical reflections on our experiences. Though there is no one consistent definition of experiential education, many point to the definition set forth by the Association of Experiential Education: "it is a process through which a learner constructs knowledge, skill and value from direct experiences". In 2001 the task force on Experiential Education at St. Olaf College broadly defined experiential education as the study, action and reflection of a "hands on" experience.

As the CEL's programs and activities have matured and refined, so has our definition of experiential learning into one that engages students in critical thinking, problem solving and decision making in contexts that are personally relevant and connected to academic learning objectives by incorporating active learning. This approach requires the making of opportunities for debriefing and consolidation of ideas and skills through reflection, feedback and the application of the ideas and skills to new situations.

Effective experiential education requires a well-designed, multi-disciplinary and interactive learning approach that involves the student, faculty and CEL staff in the sequential steps of planning, experiencing or doing, sharing, processing, generalizing, feedback and applying to further and future planning.
Experiential Learning Definition
St. Olaf College, Center for Experiential Learning.*/

9. A nine-step structure for debriefing

This article outlines a nine-step structure for debriefing an international business culture simulation. The authors argue that proper attention is often not paid to this critical aspect of experiential learning which addresses three stages in the experiential learning cycle: reflection, processing and transfer. The rationale for the debriefing structure is explained and sample questions are provided at each stage. Whilst the structure is discussed specifically in the context of an international business culture simulation, the model may have a much wider applicability to other experiential learning exercises. The simulation used by the authors and a debriefing note are included in the appendices.

Peter McGraw, Ian Palmer (2001)
A Structured Debriefing Process for International Business Culture Simulations
Journal of Teaching in International Business Volume: 11 Issue: 2
ISSN: 0897-5930 Pub Date: 3/1/2001,

10. Debriefing includes: reflection, consolidation and application

At the heart of all learning is the way we process our experiences, especially our critical reflections on our experiences. This module introduces experiential education as a key approach to student-centred learning for a sustainable future. Experiential learning engages students in critical thinking, problem solving and decision making in contexts that are personally relevant to them. This approach to learning also involves making opportunities for debriefing and consolidation of ideas and skills through feedback, reflection, and the application of the ideas and skills to new situations...

Reflection is part of the debriefing process. Debriefing is the name given to what teachers do in class to help students process the information and make generalisations from their experiences. Debriefing is an important phase of experiential learning because it helps students to:
  • Learn through reflecting on what they have done;
  • Consolidate their concepts and generalisations about the topic being studied through the process of reflection and with guidance by their teachers; and
  • Apply what they have learnt in new situations.

Teaching and Learning 18 Experiential Learning
Teaching and Learning for a Sustainable Future UNESCO 2001

11. The history of oral debriefing

Oral debriefing in the US military
Oral debriefing in industry
Embarking on an oral debriefing programme
Corporate DNA: Using Organizational Memory to Improve Poor Decision-Making

12. Debriefing as detoxification

In the debriefing, the instructor acknowledges their experience by exploring the advantages and disadvantages of these variations with them. However, the assumption remains that the instructor’s experience is more accurate than the students’ and he or she won’t hesitate to discard specific variations as ‘wrong’ for reasons of safety, ease of handling, longevity of ropes and so on. To be clear: I support this practice, yet I want to question the tendency to consider learning activities in which the instructor considers the learners’ experience to be less valid than his or her own, ‘experiential’...

With regard to the second question, the recent proposal of “a new paradigm of change (for) experiential debriefing” (Porter, 1999, pg. 85) not only illustrates that some forms of adventure education assume that the facilitators’ experience is more valid than the learners’, but also recommends such a practice in “experiential debriefing”. Illustrating her paradigm with a concrete program event, the author describes how she “often needs to spend considerable time” convincing her program participants that their experience of a certain learning activity is inappropriate. In line with the metaphoric blueprint that she – the facilitator – brings to the activity, she refers to this intervention as “detoxifying their response” (pg. 88). In ways very similar to the hard skill instructor’s clarification of desirable and undesirable rope techniques, she thus defines for her participants which interpretations of the event are acceptable and which are not.

Australian Journal of Outdoor Education - Vol 6 No. 1, 2001.*/

13. Managing experiential tension (and overestimating the importance of debriefing)

Too often instructors seek to locate their search for effectiveness in the context of learning how to debrief.  It is interesting that in a field which has prided itself since its beginning on experiential learning, that many outdoor educators in the 1980’s and 1990’s have turned almost about face to look for the key to learning in debriefing.  Experienced practitioners know there is an overestimation by inexperienced instructors of the importance of debriefing.  While debriefing can certainly play an important role in experiential learning, it is a fallacy that is always necessary or that effective learning can’t occur without debriefing.  An appropriate metaphor is that debriefing represents the tip of the iceberg.  Nine-tenths of the iceberg, which is the learning that occurred during the experience, occurs out of sight, underneath the water, often unconsciously.  Perhaps one-tenth of the learning occurs consciously and out of the water, when people may sit around to talk about it.  There are even sound arguments for when debriefing can interfere with the learning process.  The point here is not to delegitimize debriefing but to argue that attempts to improve instructor effectiveness should be more holistic than learning to debrief.  With such an approach, debriefing will naturally find an appropriate place.

Guided discovery learning is more fundamental and holistic than debriefing.  The key to guiding this learning is for instructors to create situations in which participants will experience an appropriate tension which can be managed in a developmental direction.  Once the process has been begun, the instructor’s job is to monitor that the experiential tension is moving each participant in a positive direction.  If not, he/she must alter the experience for the participant in some way.  The skills and awareness necessary for guided discovery learning are often subtle, but critical.

J.T.Neill (1997)

14. Debriefing as facilitated self-reflection (in action learning)

Debriefing. This process of "facilitated self-reflection" is essential to the action learning process. Linkage provides participants with tools that encourage them to reflect and provide each other with feedback.
Action + Learning = Change
© 1997-2002 Leapfrog Innovations, Inc..*/

15. Debriefing the experience allows participants to integrate their learning

Debriefing the experience is what moves an experience beyond "learning-by-doing." The primary purpose of debriefing is to allow participants the opportunity to integrate their learning. They have a sense of closure or completeness to their experience. In order for youth to take what they have just experienced and use it effectively in their everyday lives, they must think about it and interpret its meaning for themselves (Hammel 1986).
Thomas D. Zurcher, Ph.D.
Center for 4-H Youth Development, U of Minnesota
Experiential Learning in 4-H Project Experiences

16. The value of debriefing in experiential learning

Debriefing assists learners to:
  • process the experience by reflecting upon their learning;
  • clarify concepts and form generalisations by
    - identifying and consolidating what they have learnt, and
    - relating this learning to previously learnt material or to related learning materials (e.g. the textbook, a video, an experiment, a field trip, etc.); and
  • apply what they have learnt to new situations.
The Importance of Debriefing
from Experiential Learning Module 3
Based on Draft Module by Barry Law

17. Debriefing for comprehension and enlightenment

You must remember that experiential learning involves both the activity and immediate follow-up in the form of debriefing and processing. Debriefing is a time during which the experiential activities can be explained. They are broken down to the basic levels of activity focus and intent. Processing, which is closely associated with debriefing, provides closure to the experiential activity. This final stage involves assisting the participants to comprehend and internalize their experiences, and the lessons learned from them. Wrapping up the experiential exercise, processing can point out how to utilize past experiences in making future decisions.

Debriefing and processing should occur after each experiential learning activity. It is a time when all of the participants can reflect upon and talk about their recent experiences. The purpose of these sessions is to generate discussion that in some way enlightens each participant.

Experiential Learning

18. Debriefing with sequenced questions (funneling) but without making statements

In debriefing, facilitators ask clients for their opinions and refrain from making statements to clients. In this way, clients learn to think for themselves and begin to take ownership over confronting issues (educational programs). If they "own" their issues, they are more likely to commit to changing the situation and to following through on their commitments. In a debrief discussion, clients are asked (under the guidance of a questioning facilitator) to reflect on their experiences and to discuss points of learning that they believe took place. The discussion can take a free form and shift from topic to topic as the group needs or can be prescribed or "funneled" in a direction that the facilitator determines is best. This latter type of debriefing is called funneling, where questions are carefully sequenced toward an outcome.

In debriefing the experience, a facilitator would foster a group discussion concerning the details, analysis, and evaluation of the group's behaviour following activity completion. Sample questions of this facilitational style might include: "what happened?, what was the impact of this?, how did that make you feel?, what did you learn from this?, what aspects for this activity were metaphors of your life?, and what will you do differently next time?"

19. Debriefing combines the experiential mind with the rational mind = whole-brain learning

YOU ARE OF TWO MINDS. Professor Seymour Epstein at the University of Massachusetts has a ground-breaking theory of intelligence called Cognitive Experiential Self Theory (CEST), which suggests that we have an experiential mind and a rational mind. Our experiential mind learns directly, thinks quickly, pays attention to the outcome, and forgets slowly. Our rational mind learns indirectly, thinks deliberately, pays attention to the process, and forgets rapidly. Epstein's contention is that you need both your minds. Games and interactive strategies appeal directly to the experiential mind. When combined with debriefing discussions, they provide a powerfully balanced approach to whole-brain learning.
Sivasailam "Thiagi" Thiagarajan
How To Persuade People that Training Games Produce Effective Learning
Copyright © 2000. Workshops by Thiagi, Inc. All rights reserved

20. Always debrief

Always debrief. This is the opportunity to tie the experience to the concepts and principles. Don't assume that participants will get it automatically. Lead it out of them, don't pull it out. (John Sleigh)

Don't be afraid to fail: a less-than-successful game can be artfully debriefed into a more-than-meaningful learning experience.  (Steve Sugar)

Play for Performance, January 2006

21.. A game is just an excuse for the debriefing discussion.

Real learning occurs through the integration of an experiential activity and a debriefing discussion. This pithy saying focuses on the importance of debriefing to complete the learning process.

You can facilitate a debriefing session after conducting any type of game. For example, I recently asked participants to play tic-tac-toe and conducted a debriefing discussion to reflect on the experience and to explore such topics as strategic planning and flexible implementation.

Not all games benefit from a debriefing session. If the training game focuses on factual information or mechanical procedures, conducting a debriefing discussion is a waste of time. On the other hand, if you are using a simulation game or a roleplay exercise to explore such elements as feelings, emotions, values, beliefs, and interpersonal interactions, then most of the real learning comes from the debriefing.

Here are three key situations in which debriefing helps us capture, consolidate, and reinforce learning insights from a game or an experiential activity.

1. When the connection between the game and its real-world analogue is not obvious. For example, in the simulation game Barnga, participants learn to play a card game at different tables. Unknown to the players, the rules at each table are slightly different from the rules at the other tables. Later during the game, chaos and confusion result when players switch tables and continue to play. The card game inside Barnga reflects routine human interactions. The rule differences reflect cultural differences. They ensure unanticipated culture shocks. These abstract connections are not obvious to the players until they are brought out during debriefing.

2. When the game is likely to arouse intense feelings and emotions. For example, in the game Me And My Team, participants feel paranoid during the last round when a hefty cash prize is secretly available to the team member who is willing to betray her team. The debriefing discussion helps participants to become aware of their feelings and relate them to similar situations in the workplace.

3. When the activity requires a total system view of multiple factors. For example, in the game Quality, quick decisions made by team members affect their scores on 18 different variables. The debriefing discussion after the game enables participants to discover relationships among different decisions and different results.

In these three situations, the game truly becomes an excuse for a reflective debriefing discussion.

Sivasailam "Thiagi" Thiagarajan
Play for Performance, January 2006

22. Debriefing with a project team

Debriefing meetings provide the team members with the opportunity to give some direct feedback about the project, including an in-depth view of what went well and what did not go well. It is an opportunity for project leadership to probe deeper into project issues and begin getting to the root causes of these issues. Debriefing meetings usually last from one to two hours.

The entire project team should have the opportunity to participate. The more people providing direct verbal feedback to the project leadership, the better. Larger projects may require a series of meetings. At the Debriefing Meeting the team members discuss project issues in a structured format. A facilitator guides the group in probing deeply into a pre-selected list of issues. The meeting allows team members an opportunity to vent and get closure. It is also a good place to capture what went well on the Project...

Unless guided by a skilled facilitator, debriefing meetings can evolve into "dumping" sessions by disgruntled team members who monopolize precious time and often fixate on one issue at the expense of other, more critical ones. Make sure you have a strong, experienced facilitator who can keep control of the meeting.

23. Debriefing definitions

Debrief: (?), v. to interrogate (a person) who has recently experienced an event, to obtain information about that experience; -- used especially of military pilots or diplomatic agents who have just returned from a mission.
Debriefing: Definition and Benefits
The Role of Debriefing in the Interactive Classroom

24. Debriefing Experiential Learning Exercises in Ethics Education

Abstract  The major conclusion of this paper is that to obtain optimum pay-off from using experiential learning exercises in teaching business ethics, faculty must pay close attention to debriefing. The paper presents an approach based on a conceptual model for systematic and analytical debriefing of experiential learning exercises in ethics education. The paper also suggests that faculty must provide structure and ambiguity so that students can personalize the learning – experiencing meaningfulness (i.e., usefulness) in its application – so that learning is relevant to the individual.

Ronald R. Sims, May 2002
 Teaching Business Ethics
Publisher: Springer Netherlands
ISSN: 1382-6891 (Paper) 1573-1944 (Online)
Issue:  Volume 6, Number 2 Pages: 179 - 197
Debriefing Experiential Learning Exercises in Ethics Education

25. Debriefing international experiential learning exercises

Over the years the use of experiential learning exercises as a vehicle for improving managers knowledge, skills and abilities has steadily increased. And, more recently experiential learning exercises have become natural components in organizational efforts to better prepare their managers to more effectively manage in the international marketplace. This paper discusses the importance of the debriefing phase in international experiential learning exercises by presenting a framework to improve the debriefing phase of such exercises.

Developments In Business Simulation & Experiential Exercises, Volume 20, 1993 47
Robert F. Dennehy, Pace University
Ronald R. Sims, College of William and Mary

26. Alternative debriefing formats

The design of an experiential exercise is comprised of three key characters: the instructor, the facilitator and the learner, whose interactions affect the learner. This interaction takes place within the dimensions of a facility having a variety of technical advantages, such as videotape recording and other equipment, or simply in a classroom. The exercise, itself, is not complete without the added dimension of a debrief which may be in any of several alternative formats, ranging from the instructor talking with the learner to the sophisticated use of video equipment.
Insights into Experiential Pedagogy, Volume 6, 1979 325
Sidney J. Ward III, University of Southern California

27. How to design a debriefing session

Tells leaders how to design debriefing and processing sessions that allow outdoor education participants to integrate learning and achieve closure to experiences by setting aside time to reflect; asking proper questions; planning appropriate reflective activities; assessing collective and individual needs of group; and balancing variety, flexibility, timing, and location.
Hammel, Heidi (1986)
How to Design a Debriefing Session.
Journal of Experiential Education

28. Enhancing Understanding Through Debriefing

Outlines debriefing strategies to help students organize, compare, classify, evaluate, summarize, or analyze an experience and determine its meaning. Discusses several possible activities leading to increased understanding, including writing logs, diaries, or summaries, naming themes, imagining alternatives, evaluating, role-playing, drawing, comparing, and concept mapping. Includes four references.
Raths, James (1987)
Enhancing Understanding Through Debriefing
Educational Leadership

29. Special issue: debriefing

Sivasailam Thiagarajan : 'Using games for debriefing'
Barbara Steinwachssing: 'How to facilitate a debriefing'
Charles F. Petranek, Susan Corey and Rebecca Black: 'Three levels of learning in simulations: participating, debriefing, and journal writing' in
Simulation and Gaming archive
Volume 23 , Issue 2 (June 1992)
Special issue: debriefing
Sage Publications, Inc

30. Debrief appropriately

The DEEP Initiative [was at] The Definition, Ethics and Exemplary Practices of Experiential Training and Development (DEEP ETD) Initiative is described as ''the first definitive piece of collective work to define experiential training and development, create a code of ethical conduct and articulate a set of exemplary practices.''

Introduction to
DEEP Initiative Version 6.2 March 18, 1999

Practitioner Competencies (Section D) Comment: I have expressed my concern to the DEEP Initiative that ''reviewing skills'' are a little understated in just one 2 word competency: ''2.2.6 Debrief appropriately''. In all other areas, the consortium seems to have done a very professional job. They still welcome feedback and discussion about the document - so maybe they do have quite a strong commitment to reviewing after all? Take a look and see what you think.

31. A variety of debriefing models and methods

Good educational game design is about providing an engaging experience for learners. Experiential training games have been used in fields such as medicine, business, outdoor adventures and military operations for decades ... The purpose of this paper is to explore some of these models of debriefing and to present a variety of methods that educational software creators can use to include debriefing in their experiential educational games.

Completing the Experience: Debriefing in Experiential Educational Games.
Scott NICHOLSON School of Information Studies
Syracuse University, Syracuse, NY 13244, USA
ISSN: 1690-4524 SYSTEMICS, CYBERNETICS AND INFORMATICS 2013: 11(6)$/sci/pdfs/iEB576TH.pdf

32. The debrief as student-centred discussion

This paper highlights the importance of conducting structured, student-centered discussions, known as debriefs, following experiential learning activities in health education. Drawing upon Kolb’s experiential learning theory and literature from scholars in simulation-based training, the authors outline key considerations for planning and facilitating debriefs.

Planning and Facilitating Debriefs of Experiential Learning Activities in Skills-Based Health Education
Journal of Health Education Teaching, 2017; 8(1): 61-76 Copyright:
Authors:Judith A. Johns, Matthew T. Moyer, Lisa M. Gasque

References within the above quotations.

Boud, D., Cohen, R. & Walker, D. (eds.) (1993). Using experience for learning. Milton Keynes: SRHE and Open University Press.
Porter T. (1999). Beyond metaphor: applying a new paradigm of change to experiential debriefing. The Journal of Experiential Education, 22(2), 85-90.
Richmond, V. P. and Gorham, J. (1992). Communication, learning and effect in instruction. Edina, MN: Burgess International Group, Inc.

Selected references from the reference sections of the above articles

Boud, D. et al (eds) (1985) Reflection. Turning Experience into Learning, Kogan Page,
Boud. D. and Miller, N. (eds) (1997) Working with Experience: Animating Learning,
Routledge, London.
Burnard, P. (1988) Experiential learning: Some theoretical considerations, Journal of
Lifelong Education, 7(20), pp. 127-133.
Chapman, S. (1992) What is experiential education?, The Journal of Experiential
Education, 15(2), pp. 16-23.
Cornell, J. (1989) Sharing the Joy of Nature, Dawn Publications, Nevada City.
Cowan, J. (1988) Learning to facilitate experiential learning, Studies in Continuing
Education, 10(1), pp. 19-29.
Heron, J. (1989) The Facilitator's Handbook, Kogan Page, London.
Kolb, D. (1984) Experiential Learning: Experience as the Source of Learning and
Development, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs.
Knapp C. (1997) Lasting Lessons: A Teacher's Guide to Reflecting on Experiences,
ERIC Clearinghouse on Rural Education and Small Schools, Charleston.
Tennant, M. (1997) Psychology and Adult Learning, 2nd ed., Routledge London.
Usher, R. (1993) Experiential learning or learning from experience: does it make a
difference?, in D. Boud, R. Cohen and D. Walker (eds) Using Experience for Learning,
Open University Press, Buckingham.
Westheimer, J., Kahne, J. and Gerstein, A. (1992) Reforms for the Nineties:
Opportunities and obstacles for experiential educators, The Journal of Experiential
Education, 15(2), pp. 44-49.
Whitaker, P. (1995) Managing to Learn: Aspects of Reflecting and Experiential
Learning in Schools, Cassell, London.
Hammel, H. (1986). How to Design a Debriefing Session. Journal of Experiential Education.
Hendricks, P. A.. (1996) Targeting Life Skills Model. University Extension, Iowa State University.
Kolb, D. (1974) Organizational Psychology. Englewood Cliffs, MF: Prentice-Hall.
Quinsland, L.K. (1984) How to Process Experience. Journal of Experiential Education, Vol. 7,

Islands of Healing - ISBN 0-7872192-4-X: A basic guide to processing or debriefing experiential activities.

The extracts above are from articles about debriefing in experiential learning. The articles used to be just one click away, but many of these articles have since been moved from their original URL.

If you want to find or reference the original article, try one of the methods described at the top of this page.

If you do find the original or another article about debriefing in experiential learning that merits inclusion on this page, please let me know

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