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Reference Section of 'Why Adventure?'

Why Adventure?: About 'Why Adventure?'  |  Chapter Summaries  |  References A ~ J
Related pages on this site: Adventure Therapy Bibliography  |  A-Z of Outdoor Learning Research

References K ~ Z

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Kagan, C. (1991) 'The effect of others on our behaviour', in: J. Radford and E. Govier (Eds.) A Textbook of Psychology, 2nd Edition, London and New York: Routledge

Kalisch, K.R. (1979) The Role of the Instructor in the Outward Bound Educational Process, Wisconsin, Three Lakes.

Kaplan, S. and Talbot, J. (1983) Psychological benefits of wilderness experience' in Altman, I. and Wohwill, J.F. (Eds) Behavior and the Environment, New York, Plenum Press (in Bunting, 1989).

Katz, R., and Kolb, D (1968) 'Outward Bound and education for personal growth', in: F.J. Kelly and D.J. Baer Outward Bound Schools as an Alternative to Institutionalisation for Adolescent Delinquent Boys, Greenwich, CT.: Outward Bound Inc.

Keighley, P. (1985) 'Using the Potential of Outdoor Education as a Vehicle for Integrated Learning' in the Journal of Adventure Education and Outdoor Leadership, 1985:2(4/5) pp26-30

Kellmer-Pringle, M. (1986, 1992) The Needs of Children, London and New York: Routledge

Kelly, F.J., and Baer, D.J. (1968) Outward Bound Schools as an Alternative to Institutionalisation for Adolescent Delinquent Boys, Greenwich, CT.: Outward Bound Inc.

Kelly, F.J., and Baer, D.J. (1971) 'Physical challenge as a treatment for delinquency'. Crime and Delinquency 17, 437-445

Kennedy, A. (1992) The Expedition Experience as Vehicle for Change in the Inner City, Adventure Education.

Kenvyn, I (c.1987) 'Adventure: An Opinion Paper' in The Journal of Adventure Education and Outdoor Leadership pp12-14.

Kimball, R.O. (1988) 'The wilderness as therapy: The value of using adventure programs in therapeutic assessment', Journal of Adventure Education and Outdoor Leadership, 5(3), 31-33

King, M. (1988) How To Make Social Crime Prevention Work: The French Experience, London: NACRO

King, M. (1987) 'Crime prevention in France', Research Bulletin: Special European Edition, No.24, Home Office Research and Planning Unit

Kolb, D.A. (1984) Experiential Learning: Experience as the Source of Development Prentice-Hall Inc., New Jersey.

Kolvin, I., Miller, F.J.W., Scott, D.M., Gatzanis, S.R.M. and Fleeting, M. (1990) Continuities of Deprivation?, Aldershot: Avebury

LaBenne, W., and Greene, B. (1969) Educational Implications of Self Concept, Pacific Palisades, CA.: Goodyear Publishing Company, Inc.

Last, A. and Tombs, C. (1994) 'The Arches Urban Adventure Centre' in the Nottinghamshire County Council's Leisure Services' 1993 Annual Report on the Participation by Young People in Adventurous Activity through the Nottinghamshire youth and community Service.

Leach, J. and Telfer, H. (1989) 'Report on the Training Week of Operation Raleigh Venturers 16th-22nd April 1989', University of Lancaster.

Levi, J. (1987) 'Women in the Outdoors - a 2 year project', paper in Adventure Education library, Penrith

Lewin, K. (1948) 'Action research and minority problems', in: K. Lewin (Ed.) Resolving Social Conflicts: Selected papers in group dynamics, New York: Harper and Row

Lukins, C. (c.1985) 'Skiing Success', Outdoor Education Special, British Journal of Physical Education.

Mackay, B.J. (1987) 'Evaluation of the Outcomes of Outdoor Education', Masters thesis, University of Canterbury, NZ. (quoted in Abbott, 1987)

Mackenzie, R. (1995) 'Bouncing Back to Health' in The Scotswoman (The Scotsman celebrating International Day for Women on 8/3/95)

Markus, H. (1977) 'Self-schemata and the processing of information about the self', Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 35, 63-78

Marsh, H.W., and Richards, G.E. (1987) 'The multidimensionality of the Rotter I-E Scale and its higher order structure: An application of confirmatory factor analysis', Multivariate Behavioural Research, 22, 36-69

Marsh, H.W., Richards, G.E., and Barnes, J. (1986) 'Multidimensional self-concepts: The effect of participation in an Outward Bound program', Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 50(1), 195-204

Marsh, H.W., and Richards, G.E. (1986) 'The Rotter Locus of Control Scale: The comparison of alternate response formats and implications for reliability, validity, and dimensionality', Journal of Research in Personality, 20, 509-528

Marsh, H.W., and Richards, G.E. (1988) 'Tennessee Self Concept Scale: Reliability, internal structure and construct validity', Journal of Personal and Social Psychology, 55(4), 612-624

Mawson, P. (1971) 'The camp in casework: A rationale', Social Work Today, 2(11), 21-22

Maxwell, I. (1995) 'Saving Things on Sesame St.' Scottish Child, Feb/March 1995.

McClaren, K. (1992) Reducing Reoffending: What Works Now, Wellington; New Zealand Department of Justice

McCrea, R. et al. (1993) 'Belfast "Passport to the Future': evaluation report'. Unpublished report. Centre for the Independent Research and Analysis of Crime, Belfast

McDonald, D. (c.1994) Outdoor Adventure Activities: Their Place in the Development of Sports Opportunities for Young People, Research Report for the Sports Council

McGillivray, M. (1993) Putting the Brakes on Car Crime, London: The Children's Society

McGuire, J., and Priestly, P. (1985) Offending Behaviour: Skills and Stratagems for Going Straight, London: Batsford Academic

McIvor, G. (1990) 'Sanctions for serious and persistent offenders: A review of the literature', Stirling: Stirling University

McKay, S. (1993) 'Research findings related to the potential of recreation in delinquency intervention', Trends 30(4), 27-30

McNutt, B. (1994) 'Adventure as therapy: Using adventure as part of therapeutic programmes with young people in trouble and at risk', in: J. Barrett (Ed.) Adventure-Based Interventions With Young People In Trouble and At Risk, Conference proceedings, Dumfries: Basecamp

McRoberts, M.E.J. (1989) 'The effect of an outdoor pursuits experience on the attitudes and behavioural patterns of young offenders', Unpublished dissertation. University of Ulster at Jordanstown

Miles, J.C. and Priest, S. (Eds.) (1990) 'The Leadership of Adventure Education', (a section with chapters from various authors) in Adventure Education, Venture Publishing Inc., State College, Pennsylvania.

Miner, J. (1990) 'The Creation of Outward Bound', in: J. Miles and S. Priest (Eds.), Adventure Education, State College, PA.: Venture Publishing, Inc.

Morash, M. and Rucker, L. (1989) 'An exploratory study of the connection of mother's age at childbearing to her children's delinquency in four data sets', Crime and Delinquency, 35, 45-93

Mortlock, C. (1984) The Adventure Alternative, Milnthorpe, Cumbria: Cicerone Press

Mortlock, C. (1973) Adventure Education and Outdoor Pursuits [monograph published by the author]

Mukherjee, S., (1985) 'Juvenile delinquency: Dimension of the problem', in: A. Borowski, and J. Murray, (Eds.) Juvenile Delinquency in Australia, Methuen, Australia

NACRO (1988) Growing Up on Housing Estates: A Report by a Crime Prevention Advisory Committee Working Group, National Association for the Care and Rehabilitation of Offenders

Nadler, R.S. and Luckner, J.L. (1989) Processing the Experience: Theory and practice Kendall Hunt Publishing Company.

National Advice and Information Centre Publication (1984) Setting Personal Development Objectives in Outdoor Programmes, Doncaster Metropolitan Institute of Higher Education 18pp (by Malcolm Eaves?)

National Youth Bureau (1987), Reshaping the Youth Service.

National Association for Outdoor Education (1981) 'Outdoor Education and the Urban Child', report of a conference at Sunderland Polytechnic, April, 1981, NAOE.

Newell, S. and Ibbetson, A. (1995) "Evaluation Matters' in Practical Training 23-24. (Their article summarises a presentation of their research at the British Psychological Society's occupational psychology conference, January 1995.)

Nichols, G., and P. Taylor (1994) West Yorkshire Sports Counselling Project Evaluation: First Report, Sheffield: Leisure Management, University of Sheffield

Nichols, G. (in press) 'Developing a rationale for adventure-based interventions with young people at risk', Journal of Adventure Education and Outdoor Leadership

Nicholson-Lord, D. (c.1994) 'An existential moment with nature', The Independent, 17/9/94

Noble, P. (1995) 'Ramblings of a Disillusioned Outdoor Pursuitist' in The Journal of Adventure Education and Outdoor Leadership 12(1)

Nold, J., and Wilpers, M. (1973) 'Wilderness training as an alternative to incarceration', in: C.R. Dodge (Ed.), A Nation Without Prisons, Lexington, MA.: Lexington Books

O'Brien, M. (1990) 'Northland Wilderness Experience: Report on an experiential program for the youth of Taitokerau'. Unpublished report, University of Auckland

Olson, (1969) (in Bunting, 1989)

Orgill, R. (1989) 'Sports Council Demonstration Project - Outdoor Activities: Report to the Countryside and Water Recreation DES Advisory Committee for Outdoor Education at Elizabeth House'

Orlick, T. (1978) The Cooperative Sports and Games Book : Challenge Without Competition, Writers and Readers Publishing Co-operative

Overton, M., Owens, D., and Yates, C. (c.1987) Naturally Special, Occasional Paper No.2, published jointly by the National Association of Field Studies Officers and Churchtown Farm Field Studies Centre.

Owens, D. (c.1987) in Overton, M., Owens, D., and Yates, C.

Palmer, J. (1992) 'Life Experiences of Environmental Educators' Environmental Education, Vol.41 (in Cooper, 1994b)

Payne, J., Drummond, A.W. and Lunghi, M. (1970) 'Changes in the Self-Concepts of School-Leavers Who Participated In An Arctic Expedition' in The British Journal of Educational Psychology, June 19770, Vol. 40, part 2.

Penal Affairs Consortium (1995) 'Boot camps for offenders', London: Penal Affairs Consortium

PGL Holidays (1995) a spokesperson for PGL Holidays talking on BBC Radio Scotland's Holiday Programme, May 1995.

Phipps, M. and Swiderski, M. (1990) 'The "Soft" Skills of Outdoor Leadership' in Miles and Priest, 1990: 221-232.

Pilger, J. (1989) Heroes, London: Pan Books Ltd.

Pitts, J. (1990) Working with Young Offenders, BASW, London: Macmillan

Poels, (1991) [not translated] in Van Welzenis, I. (c.1992)

Priest, S. and Gass, M. (1993) 'Five Generations of Facilitated Learning from Adventure Experiences' The Journal of Adventure Education and Outdoor Leadership 10 3, 23-25.

Priest, S. (1985) Effective Outdoor Leadership: A Survey, The Journal of Experiential Education, 8(1), 13-15.

Project Adventure (c.1990) [a paper produced by Project Adventure providing statistical and anecdotal evidence of its impact] Project Adventure, Inc., Hamilton, Massachusetts.

Purdy, D.A., and Richard, S.F. (1983) 'Sport and juvenile delinquency: An examination and assessment of four major theories', Journal of Sport Behavior, 6(4), 179-193

Rhode, C. and Kendle, A. (c.1994) a review of the effects of nature on psychological health (exact title not known), produced for English Nature by Reading University and the Research Centre for the Care of the Elderly. (reported by Nicholson-Lord, 1994)

Richards, G.E. (1984) Principles, Techniques and Developments in Evaluating Outward Bound and related Learning-by-Experience Programmes: A Perspective Australian Association for Research in Education National Conference, Perth, November 1984.

Richards, A. (1990) 'Kurt Hahn', in: J. Miles and S. Priest (Eds.) Adventure Education, State College, PA.: Venture Publishing, Inc.

Richards, A. (1995) Keynote Speech at the National Association of Outdoor Education Study Weekend, Ambleside. [Richards referred to research by Roger Whitman showing differences between learner and instructor ratings of learning processes.]

Ringer, M. (1994) 'Leadership competencies for outdoor adventure: From recreation to therapy', in: J. Barrett (Ed.) Adventure-Based Interventions With Young People In Trouble and At Risk, Conference proceedings, Dumfries: Basecamp

Roberts, K., White, G. and Parker, H., (1974) The Character Training Industry, David and Charles.

Roberts, K., and White G. (1972) 'The Impact of character training courses upon young people: An empirical investigation', British Journal of Social Work, 2, 337-354

Robins, D. (1990) Sport as Prevention: The Role of Sport in Crime Prevention Programmes Aimed At Young People, Occasional Paper No 12, Centre for Criminological Research, University of Oxford

Robinson, R. (1988) 'Howtown Outdoor Education Centre: An Evaluation', dissertation for an Open University degree.

Rogers, A. (Ed.) (1994) Environmental Youth Work Briefing, Council for Environmental Education

Rogers, C. (1951) Client-Centered Therapy, Boston, Mass.: Houghton Mifflin Company

Rogers, C. (1961) On Becoming A Person, London: Constable

Rogers, C. (1969) Freedom to Learn: A View Of What Education Might Become, C. E. Merrill, Columbus, Ohio.

Rohnke, K. (1994) 'FUNN: Functional understanding not necessary', in: J. Barrett (Ed.) Adventure-Based Interventions With Young People In Trouble And At Risk, Conference proceedings, Dumfries: Basecamp

Rosenbaum, M. (c.1995) Children and the Environment, National Children's Bureau (quoted in Maxwell, Scottish Child, Feb/March 1995)

Rosenberg, M. (1979) Conceiving the Self, New York: Basic Books

Rosenthal, M., (1986) The Character Factory, London: Collins

Ross, R.R. (1990) Research Summary, Department of Criminology, University of Ottawa

Ross, R.R., and Fabiano, E.A. (1985) Time to Think: A Cognitive Model of Delinquency Prevention and Offender Rehabilitation, Johnson City, Tennessee: Institute of Social Sciences and Arts, Inc.

Ross, R.R. (1991) 'Reasoning and rehabilitation of offenders', in: What Works: Effective Methods to Reduce Offending, Conference Proceedings, Greater Manchester Probation Service

Ross, R.R., and Ross, B.D. (1988) 'Delinquency prevention through cognitive training', New Education, 10, 70-75

Rotter, J.B. (1966) 'Generalised expectancies for internal versus external control of reinforcement', Psychological Monographs, 80, (1)

Ruse, D. (1989) City Adventures Paul Chapman, London.

Rutherford, A. (1986) Growing Out Of Crime, Harmondsworth: Penguin Books Ltd.

Sachs, J.J., and Miller, S.R., (1992) 'The impact of wilderness experience on the social interactions and social expectations of behaviourally disordered adolescents', Behavioural Disorders, 17(2), 89-98

Sakofs, M. (1991) 'Assessing the impact of an Outward Bound program for adjudicated youth', Journal of Experiential Education, 14(2), 49-50

Sarnecki, J., (1983) 'Research into juvenile crime in Sweden', Information Bulletin of the National Swedish Council for Crime Prevention, Stockholm

Save the Children Fund (1990) Worth the Trouble: A report on the first year of the Dumbarton Alternative to Detention Project, Save the Children Fund, Scotland

Schoel, J., Prouty, D. and Radcliffe, P. (1988) Islands of Healing: A Guide to Adventure Based Counselling, Hamilton, MA.: Project Adventure, Inc.

Schutz, W.C. and V.L.Allen (1966) 'The effects of a T-group laboratory on interpersonal behaviour' Journal of Applied Behavioural Science, 1 (3), 265-286.

Scott, H., University of Alberta (in Orlick, 1978: 6)

Scraton, S. (1986), Images of Femininity and the teaching of girls' PE', in J. Evans (Ed.), PE, Sport and Schooling, Falmer Press. (in Humberstone, 1984)

Segrave, J.O., and Hastad, D.N. (1984) 'Interscholastic athletic participation and delinquent behaviour: An empirical assessment of relevant variables', Sociology of Sport Journal, 1, 117-137

Selman, R.L. (1980) The Growth of Interpersonal Understanding: Developmental and Clinical Analyses, New York: Academic Press

Serok, S. (1975) 'Difference in game preference between delinquent and non-delinquent children'. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Case Western Reserve University

Sheehy, K. (1994) Leading Out: The final report of the Outdoors Now Project 1993/94, NYCI, Ireland

Shore, A. (1978) Outward Bound: A Reference Volume, Greenwich, CT.: Outward Bound Inc.

Simmons, R., Rosenberg, F., and Rosenberg, M. (1973) 'Disturbance in the self-image of adolescents', American Sociological Review, 38, 553-568

Skinner, A. (1985) A Bibliography of Intermediate Treatment 1968-84, Leicester: National Youth Bureau

Smith, R.E. and F.L. Smoll (1990) 'Self-esteem and children's reactions to youth sport coaching behaviors: A field study of self-enhancement processes', Developmental Psychology, 26(6) 987-993

Smith, C. (1994) Young People At Risk: An Agenda for Action, Royal Philanthropic Society and The Trust for the Study of Adolescence

Smith, D. (1983) 'Helping Young Offenders', Policy Studies, 4(1), 81-92

Smith, P.B. (1980) Group Process and Personal Change, Harper and Row

Sneider, E. and Spreitzer, E. (1974) 'Sociology of Sport: An Overview' in Sociological Quarterly, Autumn 1974, 467-487

Springett, N.R. (1987) 'The Evaluation of Development Training Courses' M.Sc thesis (in occupational psychology) MRC/SSRC Social and Applied Psychology Unit

Stead, D. and Swain G. (eds.) (1987) Youth Work and Sport, National Youth Bureau.

Stevenson, C.L. (1975) 'Socialization effects of participation in sport: A critical review of the research', Research Quarterly, 46, 287-301

Stewart, G., and Stewart, J. (1993) Social Circumstances of Younger Offenders Under Supervision, Lancaster University. Association of Chief Officers of Probation

Stone, B. J. (1994) 'Adventure and young offenders: A study into the effectiveness of an adventure programme with a group of young offenders'. Unpublished dissertation, Cheltenham and Gloucester College of Higher Education

Stopol, R., Udall, D. and Holcombe, R. (1991) 'Introduction to NYCOBC school lesson plans' in Udall, D. (Ed.) (1991) Lessons from Our Classrooms: A Guide for Experiential Educators, New York City Outward Bound Centre.

Sugden, J. (1979) 'Sport and juvenile delinquency'. Unpublished MA dissertation, University of Connecticut

Sugden, J. and A. Yiannakis, (1982) 'Sport and juvenile delinquency: a theoretical base', Journal of Sport and Social Issues, 6(1)

Sveen, R. (1993) 'Travelling in the wilderness: experiential learning and youth at risk', in: Youth Studies Australia, 12(3), 14-20

Swan, M. (1985) 'Research on Effects of Resident Outdoor Education', The Lorado Taft Field Campus, Northern Illinois.

Swann, J., and Read, S. (1981) ' Self-verification processes: how we sustain our self-conceptions', Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 17, 351-372

Talbot, M. (c.1985) "Gender and Physical Education', in The British Journal of Physical Education c.1985 pp120-122

Teaff, J., and Kablach, J. (1987) 'Psychological benefits of outdoor adventure activities', Journal of Experiential Education, 10(2), 43-48

Telfer, H. and Leach, J. (1986) 'Operation Raleigh: A Preliminary Assessment of Candidate Selection Weekends', University of Lancaster.

Thomson, G. (1994) 'Young people at risk: A study of the effectiveness of Venture Scotland', Unpublished dissertation, Moray House College

Thornton, D., Curran, L., Grayson, D., and Holloway, V. (1984) Tougher Regimes In Detention Centres: Report on an Evaluation by the Young Offenders Psychology Unit, London: HMSO

Tierney, P., O'Brien, T., and Petherick, C. (1990) 'Eleven years on: What we've learnt', in: J. Chianci (Ed.) Proceedings of the First National Symposium on Outdoor/Wilderness Programs for Offenders, Adult Corrective Services, ACT

Tuckman, B. (1965) 'Development sequence in small groups', Psychological Bulletin

Turvey, J. and Laws, C. (1988) 'Are Girls Losing Out? The Effects of Mixed-Sex Grouping on Girls' Performance in PE', British Journal of Physical Education, Vol.19,No.6,pp.253-255. (in Humberstone, 1984)

Udall, D. (Ed.) (1991) Lessons from Our Classrooms: A Guide for Experiential Educators, New York City Outward Bound Centre.

Van Welzenis, I. (1992) 'City Bound: The Big City as an Experimental and Learning Environment - with specific attention to city bound courses for societal vulnerable adolescents', Catholic University of Leuven, Belgium. (translated by Katleen Wielemans)

Van Matre, S. (1974) Acclimatizing, American Camping Association, Martinsville, Indiana.

Van Welzenis, I. (1994) 'City Bound: The Big City as Learning Environment for societal-vulnerable adolescents', in The Journal of Experiential Education, Vol.17, No.3, Dec.1994. [an abridged version of Van Welzenis, I., c.1992]

Van Matre, S. (1972) Acclimatization: A sensory and conceptual approach to ecological involvement, Towering Pines, Wisconsin.

Vettenburg (1991a) and (1991b), [not translated] in Van Welzenis, I. (c.1992)

Vogl, R.L. and Vogl, S. (1992) 'The effectiveness of wilderness education: A review and evaluation', AEE International Conference, Alberta, Canada, 157-163

Walsh, V. and Golins, G. (1975) The Exploration of the Outward Bound Process (unpublished paper, Colorado Outward Bound School)

Ward, D. (Ed.) (1982) Give 'em a Break: Social action by young people at risk and in trouble, Leicester: National Youth Bureau

Warner, A. (1990) 'Program Evaluation: Past Present and Future' Journal of Experiential Education Association for Experiential Education, Boulder, Colorado.

Warner, A. (1984) 'How to Creatively Evaluate Programs', Journal of Experiential Education, Association for Experiential Education, Boulder, Colorado.

Warren, K. (c.1984) Women's Outdoor Adventures: Myth and Reality' in The Journal of Experiential Education

Weber, R. (1982) The Group: A Cycle from Birth to Death, NTL Institute

Weil, S.W. and McGill, I. (Eds.) (1989) Making Sense of Experiential Learning: diversity in theory and practice The Society for Research into Higher Education and Open University Press, Buckingham.

Weiner, G., and Arnot, M. (Eds) (1987), Gender Under Scrutiny: New Enquiries in Education, Open University Press. (in Humberstone, 1984)

Weinstock, J. (1990) 'An Investigation into the justifications, given and possible, for including Outdoor Activities in children's schooling' M.A. Education Studies, Philosophy of Education.

West, D.J. (1982) Delinquency: Its Roots, Careers and Prospects, London: Heinemann

White, J.L. (1989) The Troubled Adolescent, Boston: Allyn and Bacon

Whitehead, A.N. (1939) Adventures of Ideas, Cambridge University Press.

Whitfield, W. (1991) Learning by achievement: ten projects funded by Category XIX education support grants 1988-1991, Leicester: Youth Work Press

Wilkinson, L. and Marrett, C.B. (Eds) (1985), Gender Influences in Classroom Interaction, Academic Press.

Williams, R. (c.1977) 'Marketing "Outward Bound'', European Journal of Marketing

Willman, H., and Chun, R. (1973) 'Homeward Bound: An alternative to the institutionalisation of adjudicated juvenile offenders', Federal Probation, September, 52-58

WinG (1991) 'Wayout in Gateshead Annual Report'

Winterdyk, J., and Griffiths, C. (1984) 'Wilderness experience programs: reforming delinquents or beating around the bush?', Juvenile and Family Court Journal, 35(3), 35-44

Winterdyk, J., and Roesch, R. (1982) 'A wilderness experiential programme as an alternative for probation: an evaluation', Canadian Journal of Criminology, 24, 39-49

Wright, A.N. (1983) 'Therapeutic potential of the Outward Bound process: An evaluation of a treatment program for juvenile delinquents', Therapeutic Recreation Journal, Second Quarter, 33-42

Yaffey, D. (1992) 'Personal Growth and Outdoor Experience: Some Empirical Evidence' in The Journal of Adventure Education and Outdoor Leadership, 9(1)

Youth at Risk UK (1993) 'Report on the Youth at Risk Follow-through Programme: October 1992 - August 1993', Unpublished report.

About 'Why Adventure?'  |  Chapter Summaries  |  References A ~ J

This research review was published in 1995, and the Foundation for Outdoor Adventure has plans to update it.
Meanwhile, if you want to find more recent research in this field go to the
A-Z of Outdoor Learning Research or to: Peter Weinberg's Adventure Therapy Bibliography

 INDEX to - resources for dynamic learning
 How to find your way around
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