plus links to feedback exercises and articles around the web
Giving and receiving personal feedback - some creative methods to assist communication.
feedback techniques have been used successfully with youth and
and can be readily adapted to suit many situations.
There is something here for most tastes:
Credit Cards for a controlled session
Gifts for a creative approach
Warm Seat for greatest clarity and for generating action points.
|GIVING & RECEIVING APPRECIATION||* CREDIT CARDS: AN APPRAISAL GAME|
|GIVING & RECEIVING GIFTS|| * MAKING
* FINDING GIFTS
* MIMING GIFTS
|BALANCED APPRAISAL||* THE 2:1 RULE OF THUMB|
|GIVING & GETTING USABLE FEEDBACK||* THE WARM SEAT - NOT THE HOT SEAT|
|TOWARDS GREATER LEARNER RESPONSIBILITY||* BEYOND THE WARM SEAT|
|EVEN MORE FEEDBACK EXERCISES!||* LINKS TO FURTHER INFORMATION (on this and other sites)|
|GETTING GIVING AND RECEIVING FEEDBACK||* TIPS FROM ANDREW BERGIN|
GIVING AND GETTING
CREDIT CARDS: AN APPRAISAL GAMEEach card has a short phrase such as: you tried hardest; you surprised me most; you laughed the most; you were the most predictable; you helped me most; you cared most about others etc.
Also known as 'Computer Cards'*, this popular appraisal game, in which people pass each other cards with ready-made messages on them, is very unpopular with individuals who receive a pile of negative cards. (There are better and more sensitive ways of providing critical feedback!) Even if played with cards with only positive messages, those who receive no cards at all do not feel very positive! This game works best when the reviewer knows the group very well and can more or less predict (a) who will get which cards and (b) how each person will respond to what they are likely to receive. This game works well as a reviewing technique if the cards refer to specific events during the activity being reviewed.
* The name 'Computer Cards' seems to come from the 1970s when computer programmes were punched into cards, thus creating a plentiful supply of blank punched cards that could be recycled for many purposes including this feedback exercise. Thank you to Simon Whitehouse from Balanced Perspectives for explaining the likely origin of this unsuitable name! Does anyone know any better?
RECEIVING APPRAISAL THROUGH GIFTS
GIFTS: AN INTRODUCTION'GIFTS' is an appraisal activity in which people make, find or mime gifts for each other.
This is a fun activity which tends to bring out surprising amounts of creativity and sensitivity once givers realise the responsibility they have towards the receivers.
Receivers will be more receptive, knowing the time, thought and care that has gone into creating personalised gifts for them.
The qualities represented by the gifts should have been in evidence during the activity being reviewed.
The session should be arranged so that 'appreciative' gifts outweigh 'critical' gifts: each example provided below has two positive messages and one negative message.
These are some of the options for setting up a 'gift' session:
OPTION 1) Divide the group in two or three, and ask sub-groups to prepare gifts for individuals in the other sub-group(s).
MAKING GIFTSAn example of a 'made' gift: light blue paper (representing calm) on which is drawn an outline of someone's hands (representing help), above which is a photograph of a bird cut out from a magazine.
The giver of the gift explains what it means:
"We admired you for your courage when trying to rescue the bird, but we wish you wouldn't go it alone so much, and had asked us to help too. (This is your hand helping the bird. This is our helping hand which you didn't ask for in time.) We admired you for staying calm (the blue) when you needed rescuing."Making three dimensional gifts (e.g. robots, pets, toys, hats) gives greater scope, but is more time-consuming.
More uses of pictures are described in 'Reviewing with Pictures'
FINDING GIFTSDefine an area within which gifts can be found (inside, outside or both) and ask pairs to find one gift for each other person in the group. Explain that the gift should represent two positive messages and one critical message. Here are two examples:
"Here is some sticky tape to help you keep your mouth shut, such as when .... We hope you will find it useful for other things because you are clearly a very practical person in the way you ... And it represents your humour which helped us to stick together as a group."
"This fir cone is you because you'd just lie around doing nothing if we didn't make you join in. All the bits sticking out show the talents you've got but don't use enough - like problem-solving (finding the easiest way of doing things), singing, mimicking other people. And there are bugs crawling around inside because you're friendly to everyone: people always come to you if they need someone to talk to."
MIMING GIFTSIf you can't find the right object you can always mime it! Also, mime allows absolutely any object to be gifted (however big or expensive):
"Here is a motorbike (wheelie mime) because you show off a lot - like you said you could do canoeing, but you were the first to fall in. Here is a private jet (flying mime) for going on holidays whenever you want to, because when you're doing activities and things, it makes you happy and much nicer person to know. Here is a lumberjack's axe (chopping mime) because you work really hard and put a lot of effort in - not just the exciting things, but chores as well."
BALANCED APPRAISAL: 'THE 2:1 RULE OF THUMB'In all of the examples above, each giver gives one negative message and two positive ones, which seems to be the right kind of balance in most appraisal work. Such a balance arguably has a more positive impact than using a 'positive only' rule - which can result in positive comments seeming forced and insincere. Such a balance also means that people are likely to be less defensive when receiving criticism. You can check the impact by asking participants afterwards whether they feel 'knocked back' or 'lifted'. Don't assume that the 2:1 rule of thumb is the optimum ratio for every occasion. Regularly check on the impact that your appraisal sessions are having and adjust your approach accordingly.
GETTING USABLE FEEDBACK
THE WARM SEAT - NOT THE HOT SEATThe 'warm seat' generates ideas for action points for the seated person.
Unlike the 'hot seat' where individuals are put on the spot and face questions from others, the 'warm seat' is a comfortable seat from which the seated person asks the questions. The most important feature of this reviewing method is that the seated person is in control: if they feel 'too hot', 'too cold' or in any way uncomfortable, they leave the seat to stop whatever is being said.
BEYOND THE WARM SEATI like to encourage feedback that is normal, natural and informal, but I also find myself setting up special frameworks, exercises, rules, etc. to ensure that ALL participants have the opportunity to benefit from a useful and empowering supply of feedback.
FURTHER INFORMATION - ON THIS SITE AND OTHER SITES
MORE FEEDBACK EXERCISESFeedback Methods linked to the Active Reviewing Cycle
Style, Effect, Questions
page is based on 'Playback: A Guide to
Reviewing Activities' - where you will find further
exercises about feedback (off-line and in the book!) including
observation, egoing, multi-perspective reports,
self-images and prediction work.
Another on-line page from Playback is 'Rounds' which includes ways of providing feedback through sentence completion exercises.
Giving and Receiving Feedback 18 methods listed in the September 2000 edition of Active Reviewing Tips
Appreciating Success describes some more feedback exercises.
Lucky Duck Publishing has some excellent resources about feedback work with young children and teenagers in a school setting (once you have re-arranged the furniture!). This includes Circle Time and a positive 'no blame' approach to bullying.
The Personal Image Feedback Program [no longer on the web] For a completely different approach you can buy a computer generated report summarising feedback from 10 people you know. This semi-anonymous approach to soliciting feedback is a way of getting feedback from people who prefer not to give feedback face to face. I prefer the more personal approach that uses and builds trust and openness (see above!) but you may wish to investigate this semi-anonymous alternative that is a close relation of '3600 Feedback'.
Performance without appraisal questions whether appraisals work. ''Is [appraisal] time and effort well spent or is it undermining performance in the name of good human relations?'' John Seddon's article looks at feedback and appraisal from a critical systems thinking perspective.
Giving and Receiving Feedback Some excellent links assembled by Carter McNamara, including Basic Guidelines in Giving Feedback, Feedback in a Pleasant and Constructive Way, How To Give Good Feedback, A Contrast of the Technical and Social Science Views of Feedback, and Handling Criticism With Honesty and Grace
Feedback An excellent article by Julie Freeman: "How to
Improve the Effectiveness of Performance Management and
Appraisal by Overcoming the Root Cause of the Problem"
Open Leaders by Michael Maccoby
Abstract: Reviews the literature on the Pygmalion effect and in particular its implications for workplace learning and training. The article considers the wide ranging debate within the education literature on the value of the Pygmalion concept and also considers research conducted in training and workplace settings. The implications of the concept for learning design, trainee self-esteem, trainer behaviours, and workplace learning are considered.A detailed critical review of what the research does and doesn't say. It includes some practical checklists summarising effective practice that harnesses the Pygmalion Effect.
Providing Learners with Feedback Research-based recommendations for training, education, and e-learning, from Dr. Will Thalheimer, Work-Learning Research, Inc. This thorough 2 part report was published May 2008 - and it's free.Thick Skin Thinking: How To Use Negative Feedback To Your Advantage At Work tips article by Denis Wilson (FastCompany, 2012)
The Other Side of the Stick - Receiving Feedback Article by Robert Wolfe (THNK Insights 2015)
Getting, Giving and Receving Feedback
Here are some wise and concise tips from Andrew Bergin at http://owningthestagecoach.blogspot.com
[reproduced here with Andrew's permission]
An old adage – “You don’t ask, you don’t get.” If a boss doesn’t give feedback, shame on them.
If you don’t ask for it, shame on you.
* Evaluate Yourself – think about your own view first
* Pick Your Spots – know when and where to ask each person
* Make It Matter – don’t ask on everything, pick key stuff
* Get Specific – ask what worked and what to work on
* Offer Thanks – courtesy goes a long way in business
Follow a time honored HR tip – “Feedback should be about a person’s performance or behavior, not about them as a person”.
* Be Prepared – avoid ‘shoot from the lip’ feedback
* Be Specific – vague feedback gives you nothing to work on
* Ditch the Dump Truck – people can change 1 thing, not 12
* Focus on Facts – make it personal and you lose credibility
* Watch Your Language – substitute “and” for “but”
* Refuse to Dance – don’t return emotion with emotion
Follow Ken Blanchard’s advice – “Feedback is the breakfast of champions”.
Great performers use feedback to raise the level of their game.
* Open Your Mind – don’t get stuck in preconceptions
* Listen Well – don’t interrupt and play it back for clarity
* Write It Down After – what’s the use if you can’t remember
* Gauge Its Relevance – to yourself and your role
* Do Something With It – if you don’t apply it, don’t ask again