[HOME] FEEDBACK The Active Reviewing Cycle THE
More about feedback methods
Feedback and Appraisal Exercises
More Feedback Exercises including: Changing Places; SEQ: Style, Effect, Questions; Rounds; Appreciating Success; 18 methods; and links to other sites.
Click for an easier to print version
Even more about feedback methods
Books about feedback and appraisal
(by other authors) including:
• Constructive Feedback
• Giving and Receiving Feedback
• The Appraisal Discussion

An introduction to feedback methods

This page is different to the other pages in this tutorial. This is because the stakes are higher when feedback enters the learning process. The 'normal' way to read the other pages in this tutorial is to complete at least one cycle in each review (even though it sometimes pays to 'leave' the cycle at earlier stages).

Where groups are unaccustomed to giving and receiving feedback, it is better to regard the cycle as a longer-term progression in which you do not move to the next stage until participants are reasonably comfortable with the stage you are at. For example, on a five day course, try this sequence:

  1. Day 1: use feedback methods in Stage 1: Facts (and reviewing methods from all stages)
  2. Day 2: use feedback methods up to Stage 2: Feelings (and reviewing methods from all stages)
  3. Day 3: use feedback methods up to Stage 3: Findings (and reviewing methods from all stages)
  4. Day 4: use feedback methods mainly from Stage 4: Futures (and reviewing methods from all stages)
  5. Day 5: use feedback methods from any stage, but the optimum time for feedback has already passed - that was on day 4.

Futures 4. FUTURES

    Feedback in this zone can take many forms. It is generally based on how people respond to your attempts to tell or show them what you intend to do in the future.

  • Receiving ideas, suggestions and advice (coulds and shoulds)
  • Listening to predictions from others about what you will do.
  • Predicting what you will do and listening to reactions.
  • Receiving feedback on your plans and expectations.
  • Negotiating suitable future action (e.g. Contract Solo)
  • Receiving feedback during or after practice or rehearsal (e.g. Future Walking or Role Play or Role Reversal)
  • Receiving advice in response to a specific question that you have asked (e.g. Warm Seat)

Facts 1. FACTS

    Feedback in this zone is fairly neutral and superficial - like looking in the mirror or listening to an echo. It is based on information that can be picked up by observation and does not include anything about motivations (hearts) or explanations (spades).

  • Viewing a video or photographs.
  • Listening to an audiotape.
  • Listening to things you said being quoted by an observer.
  • Being told about things you may not have noticed at the time - such as how others appeared to be responding to you (or vice versa), or how you overlooked something significant.
  • Being shown a log of how (your) time was spent.
  • Viewing a sociometric diagram that captures the patterns of communication in the group.
  • Watching an observer mimic or caricature you.

Findings 3. FINDINGS

    Feedback in this zone can generate resistance because it involves being judged by others. People are generally less resistant to positive feedback and are more likely to listen, accept and use feedback if they have specifically asked for it.

  • Receiving positive feedback (e.g. Bingo)
  • Receiving mixed but mainly positive feedback (e.g. Gifts)
  • Receiving feedback in response to a specific question that you have asked (e.g. Warm Seat, Goal Keepers)
  • Receiving feedback one-to-one from a buddy or mentor in response to a more general question.
  • Watching someone else attempt to be you in an action replay or review of the exercise - seeing and hearing yourself. (e.g. Changing Places or 'egoing')

Feelings 2. FEELINGS

    Feedback in this zone involves revealing something about what is going on under the surface. It does not involve judgements such as ''I feel that ...''.

  • Informing others about emotions that resulted from something they said or did - using words, pictures, metaphors or mime.
  • Guessing the nature and strength of emotions of others at particular points during the exercise being reviewed - using empathy exercises - and...
  • Learning about how well you have guessed what it is like to be in the shoes of others - by receiving feedback on your guessing.

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